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Tabusintac to Tormore, Canada

TABUSINTAC, a post village and settlement in Northumberland co., N.B., on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, at the mouth of the Tabusintac River, 35 miles from Chatham. Pop. 400.

TABUSINTAC RIVER, a post office in Gloucester co., N.B., 21 miles from Chatham The Tabusintac river is noted for its excellent salmon trout and bass fishery. Its banks are heavily wooded.

TADOUSAC, a post village and watering place of Quebec, capital of the co. of Saguenay, situated at the east entrance of the Saguenay river, about 5 miles above its confluence with the St Lawrence, on a semicircular terrace at the top of a beautiful bay with a sandy beach, hemmed in by mountains of solid rock, 25 miles from Riviere du Loup, 130 miles from Quebec. It has a good hotel, and a number of handsome villas, including one built by His Excellency Earl Dufferin, and is much frequented by tourists aid health seekers during the summer months. Tadousac, apart from its pleasant situation as a watering place, is interesting from the circumstance of its having been at an early period the capital of the French settlements, and for a long time was one of the chief fur trading posts. Here are the ruins of a Jesuit religious establishment, which are considered a great curiosity although nothing remains but the foundations upon which the ancient edifice rested. It is confidently asserted that upon this spot once stood the first stone and mortar building ever erected on the continent of America — the home of Father Marquette, who subsequently explored the waters of the Mississippi. From the very centre of the ruins has grown up a cluster of pine trees, which must have existed at least two hundred years. The fate, and the very names of those who first pitched their tents in this wilderness, and there erected an altar to the God of their fathers, are alike unknown.  Charlevoix in 1720, thus speaks of it; "Most of our geographers have placed a town here, where there never was but one French house and some huts of savages, who resorted hither annually to trade with the French when the navigation was free: the missionaries made use of the opportunity, and when the trade was over, the merchants returned to their homes, the savages to their forests and the Gospel laborers followed the last Tadonsac contains several grist and saw mills and has a large lumber trade.  Salmon and other fish are plentiful in the waters here. Pop. 765.

TALBOTVILLE ROYAL, a post village in Elgin co., Ont. 15 miles from St. Thomas. It has a flouring mill. Pop. 100.

TAMWORTH, a flourishing post village in Addington co., Ont., on Salmon river, 20 miles from Napanee. It contains an iron foundry, several saw and grist mills, a tannery, 3 churches, a telegraph office, and about 12 stores. Pop. 500.

TANCOOK ISLANDS, GREAT AND LITTLE, two islands of Nova Scotia, in Mahone Bay, 30 miles S.W. of Halifax.

TANCOOK ISLANDS, a post settlement on the above islands, 9 miles from Chester. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in fishing and farming. Pup. 390.

TANGIER, NEW, a seaport of Nova Scotia, co. of Halifax, at the head of a fine harbor of the same name, on the Atlantic coast, 75 miles from Halifax.This place was a were fishing village, until 1800 when the discovery of gold attracted a large number of gold seekers. Twelve quartz lodes have been opened and proved gold bearing. Most of them, however, have been abandoned, though the mills still in operation are yielding profitable returns. A nugget weighing 27 ounces, the largest ever found in Nova Scotia, was sent to the Dublin Exhibit on. Pop. 600

TANGIER, OLD or MOOSELAND, a post village in Halifax co., N.S , about 11 miles from Pope's Head, a harbor on the Atlantic coast, 50 miles from Halifax Gold in quartz was first discovered here in 1858, but no works were established until 1860. Two companies are now operating with success. Some very large nuggets have been obtained here; one specimen if quartz weighing 12 oz. contained 8 oz. of pure gold Pop. 300.

TANNERIES DES ROLLANDS, Hochelaga co., Que. See Tannery West.

TANNERY WEST or ST. HENRI, formerly TANNERIES DES ROLLANDS, a thriving post village in Hochelaga co., Que., on the G. T. R., 3 miles from Montreal, of which it may almost be considered a suburb. It contains an Episcopal church, a Roman Catholic church, several stores, brickfields, &c. Pop. 4,000.

TAPLEYTOWN, a post village in Wentworth co., Ont., 4 miles from Stony Creek. Pop. 100.

TARA, a thriving post village in Bruce co., Ont., on the River au Sauble, 16˝ miles from Owen Sound. It contains 2 churches, 2 hotels, 5 stores, a telegraph office, a grist mill. a sawmill, a woolen mill, a tannery, 4 sash and door factories a fanning mill factory, a pump factory, 2 cabinet factories, 2 lime kilns, 1 carriage factory, agricultural implement works, &c. Pop. 450.

TARBERT, a post village in Wellington co., Ont., 13 miles from Luther. It has a saw mill. Pop. 50.

TARTIGO, a telegraph office in Rimouski co., Que., on the Intercolonial railway.

TATAMAGOUCHE, a seaport town of Nova Scotia, co. of Colchester, on a fine harbor on Northumberland Strait, 30 miles N. of Truro, 18 miles from Wentworth. It contains a telegraph office, 2 hotels and about 12 stores, and in tile vicinity there are flee stone quarries and copper mines. Shipbuilding is engaged in. Pop. 500.

TATAMAGOUCHE MOUNTAIN, a post office, in Colchester co., N.S., 13 miles from the above town.

TATLOCK, a post village in Lanark co., Ont, 20 miles from Almonte. Pop. 100.

TAUNTON. a post office in Ontario o., Ont., 8 miles from Oshawa.

TAVISTOCK, a flourishing post village i Perth co., Ont., on the G. T R. (Buffalo and Goderich branch), 8 miles from Stratford. It contains a woolen mill, 1 ax mill, flouring mill, telegraph office, and several stores. Pop. 500.

TAXADA, an island in the Gulf of Georgia, opposite Jervis Inlet, British Columbia. It is 18 miles in length by 5 or 6 in breadth, and contains valuable deposits of hematite iron of extraordinary richness.

TAYLOR, a station on the C. S. R.; in Elgin co, Ont., 30 miles from St. Thomas. It lima telegraph office.

TAYLORHOLME, a post village in Russell co., Ont., 8 miles from Ottawa. Pop. 100.

TAYLORTOWN, Sunbury co., N.B. See Upper Sheffield.

TAYLOR VILLAGE, a post village in Westmorland co., N.B., 7 miles from Memramcook. Pop. 100.

TAY MILLS, a post settlement in York co., N 13., 18 miles N: of Fredericton Pop. 100.

TAY SETTLEMENT, a post settlement in York co., N.B., 22 miles N. of Fredericton. Pop. 150.

TECUMSEH, a station on the Great Western Railway, in Essex co., Ont., 102 miles from London. See Ryegate.

TECUMSETH, Bothwell co., Ont. Sec Thamesville.

TECUMSETH, or CLARKSVILLE, a post village in Simcoe co., lint., 12 miles from Bradford. It contains a telegraph office, 2 hotels, 2 stores, and 3 saw mills. Pop. 200.

TEDISH, a post village in Westmorland co., N.B., 12 miles from Shediac. It contains 3 stores. Pop. 210.

TEESWATER, a thriving post village in Bruce co., Ont., on the River Tees, and on the T. G. & B. R., 120 miles from Toronto, 16 miles from Walkerton. It contains an iron foundry, an agricultural implement factory, woolen saw and flouring mills, a telegraph office, a tannery, 1 hotel, and about 12 stores. Pop. 450.

TEETERVILLE, a post village in Norfolk co., Ont., on Big Creek, 13 miles from Simcoe. It contains saw, grist and shingle mills, and 3 stores. Pop. 200.

TELFER, a post village in Middlesex co., OA., 8 miles from Komoka. Pop. 150.

TEMISCAMINGUE HOUSE, or OBADJIOWANG, an Indian village and post of the Hudson's Bay Company, on the E. side of Lake Temiscamingue, Pontiac co., Que., 90 miles from Mattawa. Pop. 300.

TEMISCOUATA, a county in the S.E. part, of Quebec, bordering on the St. Lawrence on the N., and on the State of Maine and New Brunswick on on the S. Area 1,133,640 acres. This county is traversed by the Intercolonial railway and by the Fredericton end Riviere du Loup railway (in course of construction). Capital, Riviere du Loop en bas. Pop. 22,491.

TEMPERANCE VALE, a post village in York en., N.B., 22 miles from Woodstock. Pop. 50.

TEMPERANCEVILLE, a post village in York co., Ont., 21 miles from King.

TEMPERANCEVILLE, Elgin co., Ont. See Orwell.

TEMPLETON, formerly GATINEAU POINT, a post village in Ottawa co., Que., at the confluence of the Rivers Gatineau and Ottawa, 2 miles from Ottawa. It contains 6 stores and a saw mill. Pop. 200.

TEMPO, a post village in Middlesex co., Ont, 4 miles from Glanworth. Pop. 150.

TEN MILE CREEK, or TYNEMOUTH, a post village in St. John co., N B., on the Bay of Fundy, 27 miles from St. John. Pop. 150.

TENNANT'S COVE, a post settlement in Kings co., N.B., on the River John, 29 miles from St. John. Pop. 200.

TENNYSON, a post office in Lanark co., Ont, 10 miles from Perth.

TENY CAPE, a post village in Hants co., N.S., on a headland at the mouth of a river of the same name in Cobequid Bay, 23˝ miles from Newport. Manganese is found in the vicinity. Pop. 250.

TEOHANTA, Beauharnois co., Que. See Melocheville.

TERENCE BAY, Halifax co., N.S. See Turn's Bay.

TERREBONNE, a county in the S.W. part of Quebec, has an area of 345,302 acres. It is drained by the North River, which flows into the Ottawa, and otter small streams. Capital, St. Jerome. Pop. 19,591.

TERREBONNE, an incorporated town of Quebec, in the co. of Terrebonne, beautifully situated on the River Jesas (a branch of the Ottawa), 16 miles N. of Montreal. It has a Roman Catholic college, with 17 professors and an average yearly attendance of 200 pupils, a large Roman Catholic church, an Episcopal church, agencies of 2 telegraph and several assurance and insurance companies, saw, grist and carding mills, and manufactories of cloth, leather, iron castings and agricultural implements. It possesses unsurpassed water power; there are extensive limestone quarries in the vicinity Pop. 1,050.

TESSIERVILIE, or ST. ULRIC, a post village in Rimouski co., Que., on the River St. Lawrence, 24 miles from Metis. Pop. 150.

TESTON, a post village in York co., Ont, 3 miles from Richmond Hill. Pop. 125.

TETE-A-GOUCHE, a settlement in Gloucester co., N.B., on the Tete-a gouche River, 3 miles from Bathurst. The Tete a-gouche River is one of the best salmon streams in the province. Pop. 30.

TEVIOTDALE, a post village in Wellington ea., Ont., 23 miles from Elora. It contains saw, grist and planing mills. Pop. 100.

TEWKESBURY, a village in Quebec co., Que , 20 miles from Quebec. Pop. 200.

THAMESFORD, a thriving post village of Ontario, co. of Oxford, on the River Thames, 5 miles from Ingersoll. It contains 3 churches, 4 or 5 stores, a potash factory, and saw, grist and woolen mills. Pop. 500.

THAMESVILLE, formerly TECUMSETH, a thriving pest village of Ontario, co. of Bothwell, on the River Thames, and on the G. W. R., 49 miles from London. It contains saw, grist and carding mills, a cabinet factory, 2 telegraph offices, 5 hotels mid about 12 stores. Three miles from this place is the Indian village of Moravian Town, the site of the Battle of the Thames, in which fell the celebrated Indian warrior Tecumseh, in the 44th year of his age. Pop. 500.

THANET, a post village in Hastings co., Ont , 48 miles back of Belleville. Pop. 100.

THEDFORD, Lambton co., Ont. See Bidder.

THE ISLAND OF ANTICOSTI, lies directly in the mouth of the St. Lawrence, between the 40th and 50th degrees of latitude, nearly the same as that of the north of France, and contains an area of 2,460,000 acres of land of the best quality, similar says Sir Logan, the eminent Canadian geologist, to the fine arable soil of Canada West, and the Genesee County, New York State; it possesses over 300 miles of sea coast, is about 140 miles long, and 35 miles broad in the widest part, with an average breadth of 271 miles.

Anticosti is made mention of so long ago as 1660, in the geographical folio work of the celebrated Loyalist Dr. Peter Heylyn, known as " Cosmographia" He says that the proper name for the island is Natiscotee, which it is supposed was corrupted by the Spaniards, who fished in and tiff tic St. Lawrence at that period, to its present appellation. Ile reports that the island was then held by a tribe of Indians, who were exceedingly kind and friendly to such mariners as landed there. The fief of the island was grimed by Louis XIV, about 1680, to Sieur Louis Juliet, as a recompense for his discovery of the mouths of the Mississippi and the Illinois, and other services rendered to his Government; and it seems to have been held of so little account in its primitive state that here Charlevoix, writing about 1722, in his "Histoire du Canada," says that Joliet "would, perhaps, have preferred one of the smallest lordships in France." In La Houtan's "History of Canada," is a chart of the St. Lawrence, and a plan of the island, showing Joliet's Fort on the western flank. La Homan was a French marine officer, and he mentions that Joliet was captured in his boat off the Island by the English expedition against Quebec, in 1690, under Admiral Phips, but released after the failure of that expedition. Mr. T. Anbury, who sailed with General Burgoyne's army in 1750, devotes three pages of his work, 'Interior Travels through America," to the seal fisheries of Anticosti, and the method of catching the animals between the continent and the adjacent islands.

So much for the early records of Anticosti. When the feudal system became abolished, which had long prevailed under the French domination of Canada, there being no tenants on the island, the seigneur, or lord of his manor, became possessed of the whole soil in fee simple, since which time it has been held jointly by a variety of persons, chief amongst whom are the Forsyth family. The title to this immense possession seems to have been fully acknowledged by the Parliament of Canada, as an act was passed during the last session (in the spring of 1873) incorporating a company to develope the resources of the island.

Anticosti slopes gradually from its elevated northern coast to the grassy savannas which skirt the southern shore, and thus, in a great measure, the fertile portions of the country are protected from severe winter winds. Its climate is very healthy, and it certainly is not severer than that of the other maritime provinces. The atmosphere is pure and clear, and free from fogs which are so frequent on and around Newfoundland. The winter's cold is considerably tempered by the waters of the Gulf of Lawrence, and the heat of summer is, to a certain extent, moderated by the same influence. Vegetation progresses very rapidly, and crops come to perfection in good season. The soil is of good quality, being a rich loam intermixed with limestone; valuable forests are to be found on the greater part of the island, and although the timber generally is not of the largest size, it is of a superior quality, and well adapted for shipbuilding.

The fisheries around the island, which have been hitherto comparatively neglected, are valuable and important. Speaking of them Commander Lavoie, of La Canadienne, in his report, in 1870, to the Dominion Government, says:

"This island is beginning to be frequented and settled by hardy fishermen, tempted by the desire of participating in its rich fisheries, which up to the last few years were, comparatively, unexplored. . . . The importance and value of its fisheries have increased along with the number of fishermen. The waters bordering on Anticosti are stocked with the same kinds as are to be met with on the south and north coast of the St. Lawrence. "

In his report for last year 1 1872) Commander Lavoie says, " Large shoals of herrings visit its shores about the same time they repair to Pleasant Bay, Magdalen Islands. A schooner, from Prince Edward Island, caught last spring with the seine 1,100 barrels of herrings in one day.'' He goes on to say, " The whole of Anticosti, abounds with fish of all sorts, but harbors are scarce, even for fishing boats. Codfish on this coast are all large, and no finer areas seen even on the Miscou and Orphan Banks." The number of fishermen frequenting its banks increases every year. Even when codfish was a failure everywhere else in the Gull, it did not fail at Anticosti. Halibut are so plentiful that 199 barrels were taken in one day.

The seal fishery, which could be carried on here as well in winter as in summer, might be turned to profitable account, large numbers of these animals being visible during the former season, and thousands of them being observed in the summer and autumn at the entrance of almost all the bays and rivers, where they remain comparatively unmolested.

Hunting on the island is of consider-able value, though of far less importance than its fisheries. The animals, whose skins are of marketable value, which are found on the island, are black bears, which are very abundant, otters, martens, and the silver, grey, red, black, and, sometimes, the white fox. Great quantities of ducks, geese, and other wild fowl resort to the lakes and the bays of the island.

There are numerous natural harbors round the coast, which are comparatively safe in all winds— Ellis Bay and Fox Bay being especially so. The former is distant about eight miles from West End Lighthouse on the south side, the latter is fifteen miles from Heath Point Lighthouse on the north side. Ellis Bay is two miles in breadth. with deep water three-fourths of a mile from shore, but only with from three to four fathoms in shore. Fox Bay is smaller, the distance across its mouth is only one mile and a half, with deep water in the centre, extending up the bay nine-tenths of a mile, but shoaling near the shores of it; the whole length of the bay being one mile and two-tenths. Mr. Gamache, who has resided at Ellis Bay for upwards of twenty-five years, states the harbor to be perfectly secure in all winds and at all periods. A gentlemen from England, in 1853, a member of Lloyd's, who visited the island to inspect a vessel which had been wrecked on the coast, declared he considered the harbor a "most excellent one," so much so that he should, on his return to England, make it especially known at Lloyd's, and added further, that there are many places in England, and other countries, carrying on large maritime commerce, which have not got so deep, so spacious or so safe a harbor as Ellis Bay. This gentleman had been three times round the world as captain of an East Indiaman.

The excellent position of Anticosti in regard to ships, commerce, etc., is easily seen, when we remember that every vessel must take one or other of the channels formed by the island, whether having passed from the Atlantic, or intending to pass to the ocean through the straits of Belle Isle, through the more frequented passage between Newfoundland and Cape Breton, or through the Gut of Canso, or whether running between Quebec and those portions of Canada and of the maritime provinces lying on the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Vessels taking either of the channels formed by the position of the island must pass close to the island in consequence of the comparative narrowness of the northern one, and of the strong southeast current which always runs along the southern channel. To avoid this, and the risk of being driven on the rock-bound coast of the south shore of the Gulf and river, vessels generally stand out till they make the West Point of Anticosti, close to Ellis Bay. The inner anchorage of this bay has a depth of from three to four fathoms at low water, with very excellent holding ground (gravel and mud); the outer portion of the anchorage could be materially improved at a trilling expense, so as to be able to contain in safety, during all winds, almost any number of vessels of the largest size. If docks were constructed at Ellis' Bay, with a patent slip, it would be an admirable position for the repair of vessels stranded or damaged throughout the Lower St. Lawrence, many of which are now broken up by the sea or dismantled by wreckers before assistance can be obtained from Quebec. For steam tugs employed for the relief of vessels in distress, this might be made an excellent station; here, also, a few steamers or gunboats could command the two entrances to the river, or send out from this convenient and central spot cruisers to any part of the Gulf.

The establishment of depots of coal at Ellis Bay and Fox River would be an advantage the importance of which it would be hard to estimate, coal being easy procurable from Nova Scotia, and laid down at either harbor at a cost not exceeding from $3.50 to $4 per ton. Considering the fact that upwards of 2,000 vessels annually arrive from Europe in the season, besides a large fleet of coasting and ashing vessels, all of which must pass within sight of the island, some idea can be formed of the importance to be attached to the position and capabilities of these harbors for commercial purposes.

The company which has been formed for the purpose of colonizing the island of Anticosti, and for working and developing its resources, propose to lay out town sites at Ellis Bay, Fox Bay, and at the South West Point. The chief town will be at Ellis Bay, where the principal place of business will be established. The beautiful situation of the first of these places, with its bracing sea-air, must eventually make it a resort for thousands of pleasureleers, since sea-bathing could there be combined with many other summer sports and amusements. The capital of the company is $2,500,000, divided into 25,000 shares of $100 each. The island is to be divided into twenty counties, of about 120,000, acres each, sub-divided into five townships. It is further proposed, to lay a submarine telegraph cable to connect the island with the mainland; to build sawmills and gristmills, establish a bank and a general hospital, churches and schools, and to establish, moreover, five fishing stations, in different parts of the island, where temporary buildings are to be erected for curing and drying-fish.

Operations and improvements of such a kind have everywhere had the most beneficial result upon the industry, wealth and progress of the country in which they were attempted, and with the great resources and favorable geographical position of the Island of Anticosti, there is no reason to doubt that they will be attended there with similar results.

Sir William E. Logan, in his Geographical Report of Canada, after referring to deposits of peat, or peat-bogs, in different parts of Canada, says: " The most extensive peat deposits in Canada are found in Anticosti, along the low land on the coast of the island from Heath Point to within eight or nine miles of South West Point. The thickness of the peat, as observed on the coast, was from three to ten feet, and it appears to be of an excellent quality. The height of this plain may be, on an average, fifteen feet above high water mark, and it can be easily drained and worked. Between South West Point and the west end of the Island there are many peat-bogs, varying in superficies from 100 to 1,000 acres."

Near South West Point there are severa1 large salt ponds, which, if labor was abundant, might be turned to a profitable account in the manufacture of salt, a manufacture which would become of some value to a great part of our North American fisheries, which, as well is the greater part of Canada, arc now supplied with salt from the Bahamas, and from England or the United States; and for curing fish and provisions, bay salt, formed from the sea and from salt ponds, is the most valuable. In consequence of there not having been a sufficient supply of salt upon the island, an immense quantity of fish caught at Anticosti a year or two ago were rendered useless. This was alluded to by Commander Lavoie, of "La Canadienne," in his report, where he says that "fishing was abundant this season, the yield being reckoned at 9,500 quintals of cod, . . . but the greatest drawback arose from the difficulty experienced in curing fish, from the want of salt' Some of the Bahama Islands are retained merely on account of the salt ponds which they contain, and in Ceylon a large revenue is derived from the salt works carried on in that island.

In Commander Lavoie's report of 1872, quoted from before, he says that geologists and ethers who have visited the interior of the island, agree in slating that it, soil is rich, and that more than one million acres can be cultivated with advantage. Clearances have already been made at Gamache (Ellis' Bay), at South West and at West Point, where vegetables and grains of the district of Montreal and Quebec flourish. Stories, however, of the numerous wrecks that have occurred on the shore of Anticosti have spread such terror that up to 1861 nobody had thought of settling there. The reefs of fiat limestone, extending, in some parts, to one mile and a quarter from the shore; the want of anchorage of a great portion of the coast, and, above all, the frequent fogs, justify this belief, in part, but not so great a degree as to render reasonable the dread with which they seem to have been regarded, and which can only have arisen from the natural tendency to magnify danger, of winch we have no precise knowledge.

Four lighthouses are erected on Anticosti; one on Heath Point, at the east end of the island; another at South West Point, the third on West Point; and the fourth at South Point, at Bagot's Bluff. Teat on Heath Point is around tower, built of a grayish white lime-stone, quarried on the island, and is ninety feet high. It shows, at an elevation of 100 feet above the level of high water, a fixed white light, which in clear weather should be visible from a distance of fifteen miles. The light-house on South West Point is built of the same stone as the previous one, quarried on the spot, is seventy-five feet high, and of the usual conical form, exhibits a white light, which revolves every three minutes, and is visible at fifteen miles, with the eye ten feet above the sea; with the eye at fifty feet, it can be seen nineteen and a-half miles, and with the eye at an elevation of 100 feet, it will be risible about twenty-three miles. The third lighthouse, erected on the West Point of Anticosti is a circular stone tower, faced with fire brick, 100 feet in height. It exhibits, at 112 feet above high water mark, a fixed white light, visible from a distance of fifteen miles. A gun is fired every hour during fog and snow-storms. The lighthouse at South Point is a comparatively new building, the light having been first exhibited in August, 1870. It is a hexagonal tower, painted white, seventy-five feet above high-water mark, with a revolving white flashlight every twenty seconds. It should be seen at from fourteen to eighteen miles distance, and is visible from all points of approach. A powerful steam fog-whistle is also stationed there, about 300 feet east of the lighthouse. In foggy weather, and during snow-storms, this is sounded ten seconds in every minute, thus making an interval of fifty seconds between each blast, which can be heard in calm weather, or with the wind, from nine to fifteen miles distance, and in stormy weather, or against the wind, from three to eight miles. The lights are exhibited from the 1st of April to the 20th of December of each year.

Provision depots are also established on the island for the relief of wrecked crews. The first of those is at Ellis Bay, the second at the lighthouse at the South West Point; the third which was formerly at Shallop Creek, Jupiter River , was this year removed to South Point, where the new lighthouse and steam fog-whistle have been located, and the fourth at the lighthouse on Heath Point. Direction boards are erected on the shore, or nailed to trees, from which the branches have been lopped off, near the beach, and on various points of the coast. These boards are intended to point out to shipwrecked persons the way to the provision posts.

Vessels are more frequently lost on Anticosti in the bad weather, at the close of navigation, than it any other time, and their crews would perish from want and the rigors of a Canadian winter, if it were not for this humane provision, made by Govern-mental the absence of settlements on the island. As, however, the population begin to increase, and dwellings become scattered about, there will be the less urgent need for these depots.

The currents around the Island of Anticosti are very variable and uncertain, and to this cause may be attributed many of the shipwrecks that have from time to time occurred there. A the north point of the island there is a current almost always setting over to the northeast, being turned in that direction by the west end of the island. Confined as it is, within a narrow channel, it is very strong. All along the south coast, between the south west and west points, the swell and the current both set in shore, and the bottom being of clean flat limestone, will not hold an anchor, it is also by no means uncommon in summer for the breeze to die away suddenly to a calm.

The tide around the island only rises from four to seven feet.

It not infrequently happens that when the current from the northward is running, another from W.N.W. comes along the south coast, in which case they meet at a reef oil' Heath Point, and cause a great ripple or irregular breaking sea. This takes place when a fresh breeze is blowing along the land on either side of the island. A wind has been observed on the north side from N. or N.E., whilst that on tin south side was W.N.W., and yet never meeting round the east end of the island. Between the two winds there is usually a triangular space of calm, and light baffling airs, extending from live°to eight miles. In the space between the winds there is often observed a high cross sea, and constantly changing light air, which would leave a vessel at the mercy of the current, and in great danger of being set on the Heath Point reef.

Streams of excellent water descend to the sea on every part of the coasts of Anticosti. They are for the most part too small to admit, boats, Incoming rapid immediately within their entrances, and even the largest of them are barred with sand, excepting for short intervals of time, after the spring floods, or after continued heavy rains.

There is no doubt that, in a very few years there will be a numerous population on the island, as applications for land are being constantly received by the Auticosti Company, and the survey is being pressed forward with all practicable speed. Had the island been thrown open for settlement years ago, it would be in a very different position, commercially speaking, from what it now is; but once opened, and found to be equally productive with the maritime provinces and Prince Edward Island, there is no reason why in a few decades it should not rival the latter. For long neglected and discarded, Anticosti now has a chance of prominence, and the Dominion will hail the advent of another link in her chain, which, though it may never assume the title now borne by Prince Edward Island, "the gem of the Gulf," may yet prove as valuable a jewel in the diadem of Confederation.

THE RANGE, a post settlement in Queens co., N.B., 33 miles from Gagetown. Pop. 150.

THIERS, a post office in Megantic co., Que., 07 miles from Quebec.

THIRTY MILK CREEK, a village in Lincoln co., Ont., 2 miles from Beamsville. Pop 20.

THISTLETOWN or ST. ANDREWS, a post village in York co., Ont., 3 miles from Weston. It contains 1 store and a grist mill. Pop. 200.

THOMASBURG, a post village in Hastings co., Ont., 19 miles from Belleville. It contains a tannery, carriage and blacksmith shops, 2 hotels, 3 stores, and Church of England and Wesleyan Methodist churches. Pop. 200.

THOMPSON'S MILLS, a post office in Cumberland co , N S.

THOMPSONVILLE, a post village in Simcoe co., Out,., 17 miles from Bradford, it has a saw and grist mill, and 1 store. Pop. 80.

THOMSON, a post village in Cumberlaud co., N.S., on the I. R., 42 miles from Truro, 12 miles from Pugwash. it contains 3 stores, 1 hotel, 1 saw mill and a woolen factory. South and east of this place are several beautiful lakes abounding in trout. Pop. 250.

THORNBURY, a thriving post village of Ontario, co. of Grey, at the mouth of Beaver river in Nottawasaga Bay, Lake Huron, and on the N. R., 13 miles from Collingwood. It possesses good water power, and contains a woolen mill, flouring mill, telegraph office, and 5 or 6 stores. Pop. 400.

THORNBY, a post office in Pontiac co., Que., 24 miles from Portage du Fort.

THORNDALE, a post village in Middlesex co., Out., on the G. T. R,, 10 miles from London. It contains a telegraph office, a saw mill, and 3 stores. Pop. 150.

THORNE BROOK, a post office in Kings co., N.B., 25 miles from Apohaqui.

THORNE CENTRE, a post village in Pontiac co., Que., 20 miles from Bristol. Pop. 100.

THORNE TOWN, a post village in Queens co., N.B., on the Washademoak river, 26 miles from Gagetown. Pop. 150.

THORNHILL, a thriving post village in York co., Ont., on the N. R., 14 miles north of Toronto. It contains churches of 4 denominations, saw and flouring mills, 2 telegraph offices, G or 7 stores, and 3 hotels. The railway station is 3 miles from the village. Pop. 600.

THORNTON, a post village in Simcoe co., Ont., 8 miles from Allendale. It contains an hotel and 3 stores. Pop. 100.

THOROLD, an incorporated town of » Ontario, co. of Welland, on the Welland Canal, and on the Welland railway, 4 miles from St. Catharines. It has several very extensive flouring mills, saw and planing mills, manufactories of cotton, paper, leather, iron castings, and agricultural implements, 4 churches, 2 telegraph offices, a printing office, 2 branch banks, and a number of stores. Pop. 1,635.

THOROLD STATION, or MERRITTON, a thriving post village in Lincoln co., Ont., on the Welland Canal, and on the G. W. R., 34 miles from Hamilton. It contains a paper mill, cotton mill, saw and flouring mills, and several stores and hotels. Pop. 1,000.

THOUSAND ISLES, the most numerous collection of river islands in the world, between Ontario and the United States, consist of about 1,500 woody and rocky islets, in an expansion of the St. Lawrence, at its emergence from Lake Ontario, hence called the "Lake of the Thousand Isles." The idles extend from Napanee to Brockville and are traversed daily during the open navigation by the steamers of the Royal Mail Line running between Montreal Kingston, Toronto and Hamilton.

THRASHER'S CORNERS, Hastings co., Ont. See Hilda.

THREE ARMS, a fishing settlement in the district of Twillingate and Fogo, Nfld., 13 miles from Tilt Cove. Pop. 70.

THREE BROOKS, a post office in Victoria co., N B., 20 miles from Andover.

THREE MILE HOUSE, a village in Pictou co, N.S., 3 miles from Pictou. It contains a tannery and 2 stores. Pop. 250.

THREE MILE PLAINS, a post village and settlement in Hants co., N.S., on the W. & A. R., 42 miles from Halifax Pi 300.

THREE RIVERS, a city of Quebec, capital of the co. of St. Maurice, at the confluence of the Rivers St. Maurice and St. Lawrence, and on the line of the proposed North Shore railway, 90 miles from Quebec, 90 miles from Montreal. It is one of the oldest towns in the province, having been founded in 1613, and was for a long time stationary as regarded enterprise and improvement; but of late years it has become a most prosperous place, a change produced principally by the extensive trade in lumber which is carried on on the St. Maurice and its tributaries, and also by increased energy in the manufacture of iron wares, for which the S . Maurice forges, about 3 miles distant from the town, have always been celebrated in Canada. Three Rivers is the residence of a Roman Catholic Bishop, whose diocese bears the same name, and contains a Roman Catholic Cathedral, a parish church, a church of England, a Scotch kirk, and a Wesleyan chapel, an Ursuline convent with a school attached, a college, English academy, and several other schools, 2 branch banks, 2 printing offices issuing weekly newspapers, agencies of 2 telegraph and several insurance and assurance companies, and a number of stores. The chief trade of the town is in lumber, which is shipped in large quantities direct to South America, the West Indies, England and the United States.

The streets of Three Rivers are lighted with gas. It sends one member to the House of Commons and one to the Provincial Parliament. The district of Three Rivers comprises the counties of St. Maurice, Nicolet, Champlain and Maskinonge. Total value of imports for 1872 $72,823; exports S89,985. Pop. of citv 8,t 14.

THREE SISTERS, a post, office in Cumberland co., N.S., 10 miles from Advocate Harbor.

THREE TREE CREEK, a station on the Fredericton Branch railway, in Sunbury co., N.B., 3 miles from Fredericton Junction.

THUNDER BAY, a post village in the district of Algoma, Ont., on Thunder Bay, at the head of Lake Superior.

THURLOW, formerly SNOW VILLAGE, a post village in Hastings co., Ont., 13 miles from Belleville. Pop. 120.

THURSO, a river port of Quebec, co. of Ottawa, on the Ottawa river, 29 miles below Ottawa. It contains 2 telegraph offices, 4 or 5 stores, and saw, grist and carding mills. Pop. 700.

TICKLE COVE, a fishing settlement in the district of Bonavista, Nfld., 13 miles from King's Cove. Pop. 320.

TICKLE HARBOR, a fishing settlement in the district of Trinity, Nfld.. 30 miles from Brigus. Pop. 48.

TICKLES, a fishing settlement at the head of St. Marys Bay, Nfld., 50 miles from St. John's.

TIDNISH, a seaport of Nova Scotia, co. of Cumberland, on Bare Varte, 21 miles from Amherst. Pop. 300.

TIDNISH BRIDGE, a post village in Westmorland co., N.B., 12 miles from Shediac. Pop. 150.

TIGNISH, a post village in Prince co., P.E.I., on the Gulf of Lawrence and at the northern terminus of the Prince Edward Island railway, 12 miles from Alberton. This is one of the most important fishery stations on the island. It contains a Roman Catholic church, a convent, and several saw, grist and carding mills. Pop. 150.

TILBURY EAST, a post village in Kent co., Ont., 20 miles from Chatham. It contains a steam flouring mill and several stores. Pop. 150.

TILSONBURG, or DEREHAM, a thriving post village of Ontario, co. of Oxford, on Otter creek, and on the O. S. and G. W R's. It's 15 miles from St. Thomas, 15 miles N. of Port Burwell. It contains 4 churches, a branch bank, a telegraph office, a printing office, 5 hotels, 45 stores, 2 saw mills, 3 grist mills, 2 iron foundries, 2 sash and door factories, and 2 carriage factories, &c. Lumbering is the principal business, bat there is a good opening for factories and machine shops, as there are several excellent water privileges, and also easy means of transportation to all parts of the country. Pop. 1,700.

TILT COVE, a picturesque mining village on West Bay, in the district of Twillingate and Fogo, Nfld., 230 miles from St. John's (by steamer). It is a port of entry, and is chiefly noted for its valuable copper mines, said to be the richest and most productive copper mines in the world. Operations have been carried on at the mines since 1865, with the most gratifying success. The ore has been found in beds of from 3 to 4 feet thick, but not in a regular lode. Over 50,000 tons of copper have already been extracted A vein of nickel is also being worked here. Pop. 771.

TILTON HARBOR a fishing settlement mi the E. side of Fogo Island, Nfld, 4 miles from Fogo. Pop. 390.

TINCAP, a village in Leeds co., Ont., 4 miles from Brockville. Pop. 200.

TINGWICK, Arthabaska co., Que. See St Patrick's Hall.

TINLINE'S CORNERS, York co., Ont. See Everley.

TITUSVILLE, a post village in Kings co , N.B., 7 miles from Hampton. It contains 3 stores. Pop 100.

TIVERTON, a post village in Bruce co., Ont., 20 miles from Saugeen. It contains a carding mill, woolen mill, flouring mill, and saw mill, 2 hotels, 3 churches a telegraph office, and 3 stores. Pop. 250;

TIVERTON, Digby co., N.S. See Petite Passage.

TIZZARD'S HARBOR, a fishing settlement in the district of Twillingate and Fogo, Nfld., 5 miles from Twillingate. Pop. 250.

TOAD'S COVE, a large fishing settlement in the district of Ferryland, Nfld., 26 miles S. of St. John's. Pop. 325.

TODMORDEN, York co., Ont. See Doncaster.

TOLEDO, formerly KITLEY, thriving post village in Leeds co., Ont., on Irish Creek, 9 miles from Irish Creek. It possesses excellent water power, and contains flouring mill, saw mill, carding mill, 2 hotels 5 stores, and a telegraph. office, Pop. 300.

TOLLENDALE, a. village in Simcoe co, Ont., 1 mile from Allendale. It contains 2 flouring mills, 2 saw mills, and a woolen mill. Pop. 100.

TONEY RIVER, a seaport of Nova Scotia, co. of Pictou, at the month of a river of the same name in Northumberland Strait, 11 mules from Pictou. Pop. 300.

TOOLEY'S CORNERS, Durham co., Ont. See Cartwright.

TOPPING, it post village in Perth co., Ont., 10 miles from Stratford. Pop. 280.

TOPSAIL, a picturesque bathing place on the S. side of Conception Bay, district of Harbor Main, Nfld., 12 miles from St. John's. It is much resorted to during the summer months. Pop. 230.

TORBAY, a post office in Guysborough co., N.S . on Tor Bay. on the S H. c as' of Nova Scotia, 15 miles from Molasses Harbor.

TORBAY, a large fishing settlement on Tor Bay, on the E coasts of Newfoundland, 7 miles N. of St. John's. Pop. 1,270.

TORBOLTON, Carleton co., o Ont. See Dunrobin.

TURBROOK, a post village in Annapolis co., N.S , on Tur Brook 5 miles from Bridgetown. It contains 1 church,2 stores, 1 saw mill, 1 grist mill, and a cheese factory. It is in the centre of a fine agricultural settlement on the plateau of South Mountain, remarkable for its magnificent orchards, beautiful rippling streams, and drip openings from which iron has been taken. Pop. 300.

TORMORE, a post village in Cardwell co., Ont., 23 titles from Toronto,3 miles from Bolton. Pop. 50.

Lovell's Gazetteer of British North America, Edited by P.A. Crossby, 1873


Lovell's Gazetteer of British North America

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