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Stalo and Stuwihamuk Indians of Canada

Stalo. Significance of name unknown. Also called:

Cowichan of Fraser River, on account of their close linguistic connection with the Cowichan proper of Vancouver
  Island.
Halkaome´lem, said to be a name which they applied to themselves.
Hue-la-muh or Hum-a-luh, said to be the name by which at least a part of them called themselves.
Sa-chinco, Shuswap name for the upper Stalo, meaning "strangers."
Te´it, name for those above Nicomen and Chilliwack Rivers, so-called by the lower bands.

Connections. The Stalo belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Cowichan of Vancouver Island with whom they are often classed.

Location. On the lower Fraser River from a point below Spuzzum to the mouth of the river.

Subdivisions and Villages

Chehalis, along the middle course of Harrison River.
Chilliwack, on Chilliwack River; they formerly spoke Nooksak.
Coquitlam, in Fraser River Valley just above the delta, but owning no land because practically slaves of the
  Kwantlen.
Ewawoos, in a town called Skeltem, 2 miles above Hope, on Fraser River.
Katsey, in villages called Seltsas and Shuwalethet, on Pitt Lake and River.
Kelatl, in a town called Asilao, on Fraser River above Yale.
Kwantlen, in villages called Kikait, Kwantlen, Skaiametl, Skaiets, and Wharnock, between Stave River and the
  mouth of the southern arm of Fraser River and Sumass Lake.
Musqueam, in the northern part of Fraser Delta.
Nicomen, in villages called Skweahm and Lahuai, on Nicomen slough and at the mouth of Wilson Creek.
Ohamil, on the south side of Fraser River just below Hope.
Pilalt, in villages called Chutil, Kwalewia, Skelautuk, Skwala, Schachuhil, and perhaps Cheam, on lower Chilliwack
  River and part of Fraser River.
Popkum, in a town of the same name on lower Fraser River.
Scowlits, in a town of the same name at the mouth of Harrison River.
Sewathen, on the coast south of the mouth of Fraser River.
Siyita, in a village called Skuhamen, at Agassiz on Fraser River.
Skwawalooks, on Fraser River below Hope.
Snonkweametl, in a village called Snakwametl, on Fraser River.
Squawtits, on Fraser River between Agassiz and Hope.
Sumass, on Sumass Lake and River.
Tsakuam, in a town called Shilekuatl, at Yale.
Tsenes, location uncertain.

History. The first visitors to the Stalo were probably Spaniards, possibly the companions of Juan de Fuca in 1592. In 1809 Simon Fraser passed through their country, and his name is perpetuated in that of the river upon which most of them lived. Afterward traders connected with the Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies entered their territory more and more frequently and posts were established. They were followed about the middle of the nineteenth century by miners and the latter by more permanent settlers. Complete opening up of the country followed upon its penetration by the Canadian Pacific Railway and the consequent establishment of the port of Vancouver for trans-Pacific trade.

Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 7,100 Stalo and in 1907, 1,451.


Stuwihamuk, So called by the Ntlakyapamuk Salish, significance unknown. Also called:

SEi´lEqamuQ, another Ntlakyapamuk name, meaning "people of the high country."
Smîlê´kamuQ, a third Ntlakyapamuk name.

Connections. The Stuwihamuk belonged to the Athapascan stock but to what particular branch of it is unknown.

Location. In Nicola Valley.

History. At some prehistoric period the Stuwihamuk forced their way into the midst of the territory occupied by Salishan tribes and were finally absorbed by the Ntlakyapamuk of Thompson River.

Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 150 Stuwihamuk, basing his conclusions on Boas' (1895) estimate of 120 to 150 at a later period (1895).

The Indian Tribes of North of America, by John Swanton, 1953

Canadian Indians


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