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Senijextee and Shuswap Indians
Senijextee or Lake Indians.
These were a Salish people living on the Arrow Lakes and across the
International Boundary in the State of Washington as far down the
Columbia as Kettle Falls. (See
Shuswap. From SuxwaŽpmux, their own name, meaning unknown. Also
Atena or Atna, from a Carrier word, meaning "stranger."
TlikŽatewuŽmtlat, Kutenai name, meaning "without shirts or
Connection. The Shuswap belong to the interior division of
the Salishan linguistic stock.
Location. The Shuswap occupied a territory on the middle
course of the Fraser River, a second section of the Fraser near its
head, the drainage of Thompson River above Kamloops Lake, and a
large part of the valley of the upper Columbia above the Arrow
|Stlemhulehamuk (SLemxuŽlExamux), in the
valley of Fraser River for High Bar to Soda Creek, including
||people of Clinton.
|Setlemuk (SeŽtLmux), or
Setlomuk (SetŽLomux + ?) west of the Fraser, from about
Churn Creek to beyond Riskie
|Stietamuk (StieŽtamux), the
interior of the plateau between Fraser and North Thompson
Tekkakalt (TexqaŽkallt) or Tekkekaltemuk (TexqêŽkalltemux),
people of the North Thompson region.
Skstellnemuk (SxstêŽllnEmux), on the Upper South Thompson,
Shuswap Lake, and Spallumcheen River.
Stkamlulepsemuk (StkamluŽlEpsEmux) or, sometimes,
Sekwapmukoe (Sex + ?wapmux'oŽe), the people of
||Kamloops and Savona.
|Zaktcinemuk (ZaxtciŽnEmux), in
the valley of the Bonaparte River to near Ashcroft on the
main Thompson, Cache Creek, Loon Lake, the lower part of Hat
Creek, through Marble Canyon to Pavilion, and on both sides
of Fraser River near that point.
Bands and the Principal Village of
|Fraser River Division: Soda Creek (HatsuŽthl
or Ha'tsuŽthl), Buckskin Creek (Tcukkehwank), Williams Lake
||Sugar Cane (Pethltcoktcitcen), Alkali Lake (Skat),
Dog Creek (Ratltem or Ratlt), Canoe Creek (Teawak), Empire
Valley (Tcekweptem or Tcekiuptem), Big Bar (Stekauz), High
Bar (Thlenthlenaiten), Clinton (Pethlteket).
|Cańon Division: Riskie Creek (Pek),
North Cańon (Snhahalaus), South Cańon (Snhahelaus),
|Lake Division: Lake la Hache (Hatlinten
or Hallinten), Canim Lake (Tskasken), Green Timber (Pelstsokomus).
North Thompson Division: Upper Thompson (Pesskalalten),
Lower North Thompson (Tcoktcekwallk), Kinbaskets.
Bonaparte Division: Pavilion (Skwailak), Bonaparte River (Nhohieilten),
Kamloops Division: Savona or Deadman's Creek (Sketskitcesten
or Stskitcesten), Kamloops (Stkamluleps).
Shuswap Lake Division: South Thompson (Halaut), Adams Lake,
Shuswap Lake (Kwaut), Spallumeheen
||(Spelemtcin), Arrow Lake.
History. This tribe was encountered by
Alexander Mackenzie in 1793 and Simon Fraser in 1808. Mackenzie is
thought to have been the first white man to meet any of them and
Fraser was the first to explore the northern and western parts of
their country. They were followed by fur traders of the Hudson's Bay
Company, among them a band of Iroquois who came about the year 1816.
The appearance of miners in 1858 introduced much greater changes
into their lives which have since undergone rapid alterations though
they have not, as in the case of so many Indian tribes of the United
States, been driven out of their ancient territories.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 the
population of the Shuswap was 5,300. Teit (1909) obtained an
estimate from an intelligent old Indian which would give a
population in 1850 of 7,200. The returns of the Canadian Indian
Office for 1903 were 2,185; for 1906, 2,236.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Shuswap have
given their name to a lake and hamlet in British Columbia.
The Indian Tribes of North of America, by
John Swanton, 1953