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Senijextee and Shuswap Indians of Canada

Senijextee or Lake Indians. These were a Salish people living on the Arrow Lakes and across the International Boundary in the State of Washington as far down the Columbia as Kettle Falls. (See Washington.)

Shuswap. From SuxwaŽpmux, their own name, meaning unknown. Also called:
   Atena or Atna, from a Carrier word, meaning "stranger."
   TlikŽatewuŽmtlat, Kutenai name, meaning "without shirts or trousers.

Connection. The Shuswap belong to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Location. The Shuswap occupied a territory on the middle course of the Fraser River, a second section of the Fraser near its head, the drainage of Thompson River above Kamloops Lake, and a large part of the valley of the upper Columbia above the Arrow Lakes.

Subdivision

Stlemhulehamuk (SLemxuŽlExamux), in the valley of Fraser River for High Bar to Soda Creek, including the
  people of Clinton.
Setlemuk (SeŽtLmux), or Setlomuk (SetŽLomux + ?) west of the Fraser, from about Churn Creek to beyond Riskie
  Creek.
Stietamuk (StieŽtamux), the interior of the plateau between Fraser and North Thompson Rivers.
Tekkakalt (TexqaŽkallt) or Tekkekaltemuk (TexqêŽkalltemux), people of the North Thompson region.
Skstellnemuk (SxstêŽllnEmux), on the Upper South Thompson, Shuswap Lake, and Spallumcheen River.
Stkamlulepsemuk (StkamluŽlEpsEmux) or, sometimes, Sekwapmukoe (Sex + ?wapmux'oŽe), the people of
  Kamloops and Savona.
Zaktcinemuk (ZaxtciŽnEmux), in the valley of the Bonaparte River to near Ashcroft on the main Thompson, Cache Creek, Loon Lake, the lower part of Hat Creek, through Marble Canyon to Pavilion, and on both sides of Fraser River near that point.

Bands and the Principal Village of Each

Fraser River Division: Soda Creek (HatsuŽthl or Ha'tsuŽthl), Buckskin Creek (Tcukkehwank), Williams Lake or
  Sugar Cane (Pethltcoktcitcen), Alkali Lake (Skat), Dog Creek (Ratltem or Ratlt), Canoe Creek (Teawak), Empire Valley (Tcekweptem or Tcekiuptem), Big Bar (Stekauz), High Bar (Thlenthlenaiten), Clinton (Pethlteket).
Cańon Division: Riskie Creek (Pek), North Cańon (Snhahalaus), South Cańon (Snhahelaus), Chilcotin Mouth
  (Tekhoilups).
Lake Division: Lake la Hache (Hatlinten or Hallinten), Canim Lake (Tskasken), Green Timber (Pelstsokomus).
North Thompson Division: Upper Thompson (Pesskalalten), Lower North Thompson (Tcoktcekwallk), Kinbaskets.
Bonaparte Division: Pavilion (Skwailak), Bonaparte River (Nhohieilten), Main Thompson.
Kamloops Division: Savona or Deadman's Creek (Sketskitcesten or Stskitcesten), Kamloops (Stkamluleps).
Shuswap Lake Division: South Thompson (Halaut), Adams Lake, Shuswap Lake (Kwaut), Spallumeheen
  (Spelemtcin), Arrow Lake.

History. This tribe was encountered by Alexander Mackenzie in 1793 and Simon Fraser in 1808. Mackenzie is thought to have been the first white man to meet any of them and Fraser was the first to explore the northern and western parts of their country. They were followed by fur traders of the Hudson's Bay Company, among them a band of Iroquois who came about the year 1816. The appearance of miners in 1858 introduced much greater changes into their lives which have since undergone rapid alterations though they have not, as in the case of so many Indian tribes of the United States, been driven out of their ancient territories.

Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 the population of the Shuswap was 5,300. Teit (1909) obtained an estimate from an intelligent old Indian which would give a population in 1850 of 7,200. The returns of the Canadian Indian Office for 1903 were 2,185; for 1906, 2,236.

Connection in which they have become noted. The Shuswap have given their name to a lake and hamlet in British Columbia.

The Indian Tribes of North of America, by John Swanton, 1953

Canadian Indians


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