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Ntlakyapamuk Indians of Canada

Ntlakyapamuk. From their own name NLaka´pamux. Also called:

  Cêqtamux (c=sh), Lillooet name, from their name for Thompson River.
  Knife Indians, by the employees of the Hudson's Bay Company.
  Lükatimü´x, Okanagon name.
  Nko´atamux, Shuswap name.
  Salic, Okanagon name.
  Sema´mila, by the Cowichan of Fraser River.
  Thompson River Indians, popular name given by the Whites.

Connections. The Ntlakyapamuk were a tribe of the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Location. On Fraser and Thompson Rivers, B. C. (See also Washington.)

Subdivisions and Villages

Lower Thompson, on Fraser River from a short distance below Spuzzum nearly to Cisco:
  Chetawe, on the east side of Fraser River about 16 ½ miles above Yale.
Kalulaadlek, on the east side of Fraser River about 24 miles above Yale.
Kapachichin, on the west side of Fraser River about 28 miles above Yale.
Kapaslok, on Fraser River above Suk.
Kimus, on the east side of the Fraser between Yale and Siska.
Kleaukt, on Fraser River below North Bend.
Koiaum, on the east side of Fraser River 25 miles above Yale.
Nkakim, near Spuzzum, on Fraser River.
Nkattsim, on the east side of Fraser River about 38 miles above Yale and near Keefer's Station.
Nkoiam, on Fraser River below Cisco.
Noieltsi, on the west side of Fraser River about 23 miles above Yale.
Npiktim, on the east side of Fraser River about 30 miles above Yale.
Ntsuwiek, on the west side of Fraser River 27 miles above Yale.
Sintaktl, on the west side of Fraser River 30 to 40 miles above Yale.
Skohwak, on the west side of Fraser River about 15 miles above Yale.
Skuzis, on Fraser River above Spuzzum.
Skwauyik, on the west side of Fraser River.
Spaim, on the east side of Fraser River.
Spuzzum, on the west side of Fraser River below Spuzzum Station.
Stahehani, on the east side of Fraser River between Keefer's Station and Cisco.
Suk, on the east side of Fraser River below Keefer's Station.
Takwayaum, on Fraser River below North Bend.
Tikwalus, on the east side of Fraser River 13 miles above Yale.
Tliktlaketin, on the east side of Fraser River 3 miles below Cisco.
Tzauamuk, on Fraser River 6 and 7 miles above Boston Bar.
Upper Thompson; Lytton band (Lytton and vicinity):
  Anektettim, on the east side of Fraser River, 3 miles above Lytton.
Cisco, on Fraser River 8 miles below Lytton.
Kittsawat, near Lytton.
Natkelptetenk, on the west side of Fraser River about 1 mile above Lytton.
Nchekchekokenk, on the west side of Fraser River, 15 miles above Lytton.
Nehowmean, on the west side of Fraser River, 1 ½ miles above Lytton.
Nikaomin, on the south side of Thompson River, 10 miles above Lytton.
Nkoikin, on the east side of Fraser River, 8 miles above Lytton.
Nkya, on the west side of Fraser River, 2 miles below Lytton.
Noöt, on the west side of Fraser River, 12 miles above Lytton.
Npuichin, on the west side of Fraser River, 8 miles above Lytton.
Ntlaktlakitin, at Kanaka Bar, Fraser River, about 11 miles below Lytton.
Staiya, on the east bank of Fraser River just below Lytton.
Stryne, on the west side of Fraser River, 5 miles above Lytton.
Tlkamcheen on the south side of Thompson River at its junction with the Fraser.
Tuhezep, on the east side of Fraser River about 1 mile above Lytton.
Upper Fraser Band, from the territory of the Lytton band up Fraser River for a distance of 40 miles:
  Ahulka, on Fraser River just below Siska.
Nesikeep, on the west side of Fraser River, 38 miles above Lytton.
Nkaktko, on the west side of Fraser River 28 miles above Lytton.
Ntlippaem, on the west side of Fraser River 22 miles above Lytton.
Skekaitin, on the west side of Fraser River 43 miles above Lytton.
Tiaks, at Fosters Bar on the east side of Fraser River, 28 miles above Lytton.
Spences Bridge band, from the territory of the Lytton band up Thompson River nearly to Ashcroft: Atchitchiken, on the north side of Thompson River 3 miles back in the mountains from Spences Bridge.
Klukluuk, on Nicola River 8 miles from Spences Bridge.
Nkamchin, on the south side of Thompson River at its junction with the Nicola, about 24 ½ miles above Lytton.
Nkoeitko, on the south side of Thompson River 30 miles above Lytton.
Nokem, at Drynoch, on the south side of Thompson River 16 miles above Lytton.
Nskakaulten, on the south side of Thompson River, ½ mile below Spences Bridge.
Ntekem, on the north side of Thompson River about 1 mile back from the stream and 39 miles above Lytton.
Nukaatko, on the north side of Thompson River 43 miles above Lytton.
Pekaist, on the south side of Thompson River, 32 miles above Lytton.
Pemainus, on the south side of Thompson River 28 miles above Lytton.
Semehau, on the north side of Thompson River 32 miles above Lytton.
Snapa, on the south side of Thompson River, 1 ½ miles back from the stream and 42 miles above Lytton.
Spatsum, on the south side of Thompson River, 35 miles above Lytton.
Stlaz, at Cornwalls near Ashcroft, 1 mile back from Thompson River.
Tlotlowuk, on Nicola River about 8 miles from Spences Bridge.
Zakhauzsiken, on the south side of Thompson River, half a mile back from the stream and 31 miles above Lytton.
Nicola band, in the valley of Nicola River: Hanehewedl, near Nicola River, 27 miles above Spences Bridge.
  Huthutkawedl, near Nicola River, 23 miles above Spences Bridge.
Koiskana, near Nicola River, 29 miles above Spences Bridge.
Kwilchana, on Nicola Lake.
Naaik, near Nicola River, 39 miles above Spences Bridge.
Nchekus, about 1 mile back in the mountains from Kwilchana.
Nsisket, near Nicola River a few miles from the west end of Nicola Lake.
Nrstlatko, near Nicola River a few miles from the west end of Nicola Lake.
Petutek, on Nicola river about 41 miles above Spences Bridge.
Shahanik, near Nicola River, 16 miles above Spences Bridge.
Tsulus, near Nicola River about 40 miles above Spences Bridge.
Zoht, near the west end of Nicola Lake, 50 miles above Spences Bridge.
 

History. Simon Fraser passed through the territory of the Ntlakyapamuk in 1809 and was followed by numerous employees of the Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies. More injurious to the welfare of the Indians by far was the invasion of the miners in 1858. In 1863 the tribe was decimated by smallpox, and this and other epidemics have cut down numbers of them at various periods. They have continued to live in their ancestral territories though crowded into narrower quarters by the invasion and settlements of the Whites.

Population. Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were 5,000 Ntlakyapamuk. The report of the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs for 1902 gives 1,826 and that for 1906, 1,776.

The Indian Tribes of North of America, by John Swanton, 1953

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