Tribes of Canada
Hydah Indians of Canada
Hudson Bay Territory
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Haida. Their own name, meaning
Connections. The Haida constitute the Skittagetan linguistic
family, the speech of which has certain structural resemblances with
that of the Tlingit and Athapascans, with which Sapir (1915)
combined it under the term Na-déné.
Location. Originally on the Queen Charlotte Islands, but
early in the eighteenth century a part of the Haida settled on the
southern part of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, where they came to
be known as Kaigani, from a summer camp where they were in the habit
of gathering to meet trading vessels.
Subdivisions and Villages
The following are large local groups perhaps
entitled to the appellation of tribes: Chaahl, on the northwest
coast of Moresby Island.
|Cumshewa, at the north entrance of Cumshewa
Inlet, Moresby Island.
Dadens, on the south coast of North Island, fronting Parry
Gahlinskun, on the east coast of Graham Island, north of
Haena, on the east end of Maude Island, Skidegate Inlet.
Hlielung, on the right bank of Hi-ellen River, at its mouth,
Howkan, on Long Island, Alaska, facing Dall Island.
Kaisun, on the northwest coast of Moresby Island.
Kasaan, on Skowl Arm of Kasaan Bay, east coast of Prince of
Kayung, on the east side of Masset Inlet just above Masset.
Kiusta, on the northwest coast of Graham Island, opposite
Klinkwan, on Cordova Bay, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska.
Kloo, at the east end of Tanoo Island.
Kung, at the mouth of Naden Harbor, Graham Island.
Kweundlas, on the west coast of Long Island, Alaska.
Masset, on the east coast of Masset Inlet near its entrance.
Naikun, Rose Spit or Nekoon, at the northeast angle of
Ninstints, on Anthony Island at the south end of Moresby
Skedans, on a point of land which extends into Hecate Strait
from the east end of Louise Island.
Skidegate, on the north shore of Skidegate Inlet near its
Sukkwan, on Cordova Bay, Alaska.
Tiun or Tigun, on the west coast of Graham Island south of
Yaku, on the northwest coast of Graham Island opposite North
Yan, on the west side of Masset Inlet near its mouth.
Small towns and camps so far as known are as follows:
Aiodjus, on the west side of Masset Inlet at its mouth.
Atana, on House or Atana Island off the east coast of
Atanus, on the northeast coast of Hippa Island.
Chaahl, on the east coast of North Island.
Chatchini, near Kasaan, Prince of Wales Island.
Chets, on an island at the mouth of Tsooskahli, Masset
Chuga, near Houston Stewart Channel and the town of
Chukeu, on the southwest coast of Moresby Island.
Dadjingits, on the north shore of Bearskin Bay, Skidegate
Dahua, north of Lawn Hill at the mouth of Skidegate Inlet.
Daiyu, on Shingle Bay, east of Welcome Point, Moresby
Djigogiga, legendary town on Copper Bay, Moresby Island.
Djigua, legendary town on the north shore of Cumshewa Inlet.
Djihuagits, on a creek just south of Rose Spit, Graham
Edjao, around Edjao Hill at the east end of Masset Village.
Gachigundae, on the northeast shore of Alliford Bay, Moresby
Gado, two towns:
||(1) traditional, on the south side of De la
Beche Inlet, Moresby Island;
(2), on the east side of Lyell Island.
|Gaedi, on the northeast shore
of a small inlet just northeast of Houston Inlet.
Gaesigusket, on Murchison Island at a point opposite Hot
Gaiagunkun, legendary, near Hot Springs Island.
Gaodjaos, on the south shore of Lina Island, Bearskin Bay.
Gasins, on the northwest shore of Lina Island, Bearskin Bay.
Gatgainans, on Hippa Island.
Gitinkalana, on the north shore of Masset Inlet where it
expands into the inner bay.
Guhlga, legendary, on the north shore of Skidegate Inlet one
mile above Skidgate Village.
Gulhlgildjing, on the south shore of Alliford Bay, Moresby
Gwaeskun, at Gwaeskun, the northernmost point on the Queen
Hagi, on or near the largest of the Bolkus Islands.
Heudao, on the east side of Gull Point, Prevost Island.
Hlagi, on an island near the east end of Houston Stewart
Hlakeguns, on Yagun River at the Head of Masset Inlet.
Hlgadun, on Moresby Island facing Anthony Island.
Hlgaedlin, on the south side of Tanoo Island.
Hlgahet, near Skidegate.
Hlgai, at the head of Skedans Bay.
Hlgaiha, north of Dead Tree Point at the entrance of
Hlgaiu, south of Dead Tree Point at the entrance of
Hlgihla-ala, north of Cape Ball, on the east shore of Graham
Hlkia, on the outer side of Lyell Island.
Hluln, in Naden Harbor.
Hotao, legendary, on the southwest coast of Maude Island.
Hotdjohoas, on Lyell Island near the north end of Darwin
Hoyagundla, on a stream of the same name a short distance
south of Cape Fife.
Huados, near Hlgihla-ala, north of Cape Ball.
Kadadjans, on the northwest end of Anthony Island.
Kadusgo, at the mouth of a creek of the same name on Louise
Island, flowing into Cumshewa Inlet from the south.
Kae, on Skotsgai Bay above Skidegate.
Kaidju, on Hewlett Bay, east coast of Moresby Island.
Kaidjudal, on Moresby Island opposite Hot Springs Island.
Kaigani, at the southeast end of Dall Island, Alaska.
Kasta, legendary, on Copper Bay, Moresby Island.
Katana, on Louise Island.
Kesa, on the west coast of Graham Island.
Ket, on Burnaby Strait, Moresby Island.
Kil, on Shingle Bay, Skidegate Inlet.
Koagoagit, on the north shore of Bearskin Bay.
Koga, on McKay Harbor, Cumshewa Inlet.
Kogalskun, on Masset Inlet.
Kostunhana, a short distance east of Skidegate.
Kundji, 2 towns:
||(1) legendary, on the south shore of Copper
Bay, Moresby Island;
||(2), on the west side of Prevost Island.
|Kungga, on the south shore of
Kungielung, on the west side of the entrance to Masset
Kunhalas, just inside of Cumshewa Inlet.
Kunkia, on the north coast of North Island.
Kuulana, in Naden Harbor.
Lanadagunga, south of Tangle Cove, Moresby Island.
Lanagahlkehoda, on a small island opposite, Kaisun, Moresby
Lanahawa, 2 towns:
||(1) on the west coast of Graham Island
opposite Hippa Island;
(2) on the west coast of Burnaby Island south of Ket.
|Lanahilduns, on the southwest
side of Rennell Sound, Graham Island.
Lanaslnagai, 3 towns:
||(1) on the east coast of Graham Island south
of Cape Ball,
(2) on the west side of Masset Inlet where the inner
(3) on Yagun River.
|Lanaungsuls, on Masset Inlet.
Nagus, in an inlet on the southwest coast of Moresby Island.
Sahldungkun, on the west side of Yagun River at its mouth.
Sakaedigialas, traditional, on or near Kuper Island.
Sgilgi, in an inlet on the southwest coast of Moresby
Sindaskun, near the south end of the islands.
Sindatahls, near Tsoo-skahli, an inner expansion of Masset
Singa, on the north side of Tasoo Harbor, west coast of
Skae, close to Cape St. James at the south end of the Queen
Skaito, on the west coast of Moresby Island near Gold
Skaos, at the entrance of Naden Harbor.
Skena, legendary, just south of Sand Spit Point, Moresby
Skudus, on the north side of Lyell Island.
Stlindagwai, in an inlet on the west coast of Moresby
Stunhlai, on the northwest coast of Moresby Island.
Sulustins, on the east coast of Hippa Island.
Ta, on the east coast of North Island.
Te, on the west coast of Graham Island opposite Frederick
Tlgunghung, on the north side of Lyell Island.
Tlhingus, on Louise Island.
Tohlka, on the north coast of Graham Island just west of the
entrance to Masset Inlet.
Widja, on the north coast of Graham Island just west of the
entrance of Masset Inlet.
Yagun, on the north coast of Graham Island.
Yaogus, on the southwest side of Louise Island.
Yastling, in Naden Harbor, Graham Island.
Yatza, on the north coast of Graham Island between North
Island and Virago Sound.
Youahnoe, given as a Kaigani town, perhaps identical with
the town of Kaigani.
History. According to native traditions, the
oldest Haida settlements were on the mainland side of the islands.
The Haida towns in Alaska date back to the early part of the
eighteenth century, i. e., their establishment was almost within the
historic period. So far as is known, the Spanish Ensign Juan Perez
in the corvette Santiago was the first white man to visit the
islands. This was in the year 1774. In 1775 Bodega and Maurelle
touched there. La Perouse coasted the shores of the group in 1786
and Dixon spent a month about them in 1787. He was followed by
Douglas, Ingraham, Marchand, Vancouver, and numerous explorers and
traders whose names have not been preserved. The Hudson's Bay
Company located a post at Masset and mission stations were
established at Masset and Skidegate by the Church of England and the
Methodists respectively. Small pox, consumption, liquor, and
immorality depleted the native population rapidly even before any
Whites settled upon the islands, but the remnant of the people now
seems to have reached an adjustment to the new conditions.
Population. Mooney (1928), estimated that in 1780 there were
8,000 Haida on the Queen Charlotte Islands and 1,800 in Alaska. A
detailed enumeration made between 1836 and 1841 gave 6,593 and 1,735
respectively, a total of 8,328. Dawson (1880) thought that there
were between 1,700 and 2,000 on the Queen Charlotte Islands and in
1888 the Canadian Office of Indian Affairs estimated 2,500, but the
next year, when an actual census was taken of all but one
settlement, the total was 637, and in 1894, when all were included,
it was only 639. In 1895 there were reported 593; in 1902, 734; and
in 1904, 587. In 1880 Petroff (1884) gave 788 Kaigani but Dall
(1886) estimated 300. In 1890, 391 were returned and in 1905 the
number was estimated as 300. The United States Census of 1910 gave
530; that of 1920, 524; and that of 1930, 588.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Haida have
been noted for much the same things as the Tsimshian; beautiful
carvings, peculiar social and ceremonial customs, and large and
well-made dugouts. The slate from which so many artistic objects
have been made is all obtained at one spot in their country. They
are usually regarded as the typical totem-pole people.
The Indian Tribes of North of America, by
John Swanton, 1953