Tribes of Canada
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Hudson Bay Territory
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Eskimo. Said to be from Abnaki
Algonquian Esquimantsic, or possibly from its Chippewa equivalent
Ashkimeq, signifying "eaters of raw flesh." This may be described as
the traditional interpretation, but Dr. Thalbitzer, an eminent
authority on the Eskimo, believes it to have been derived from a
term applied to them by the French missionaries, signifying "the
excommunicated ones" (Thalbitzer, 1950), from which he also derives
the place name Escoumains. Also called:
|A´lvayę´lilit, Chukchi name, meaning "those
of alien language."
Anda-kpoen, Kutchin name.
Ara-k'e, Bastard Loucheux (Kutchin) name.
En-na-k'e, Kawchodinne name, meaning "enemies."
En-na-k'ié, Slave name, meaning "enemies."
Eshkibod, Chippewa form given by Baraga.
Hŭsky, by Hudson's Bay
Innuit, Innuin, etc., own name, meaning "people."
Kaladlit, name adopted for themselves by Greenland Eskimo,
said to be a corruption of Skandinavian Skraeling.
Nottaway, term used by most Algonquian people for all
enemies, meaning "snakes."
Ot'el'nna, Montagnais name.
Seymňs, term used by sailors of the Hudson's Bay Company's
ships, and derived from a native term of greeting, said
||to be Seymo or Teymo.
name, meaning "small people."
Ta-kutchi, Kutchin name, meaning "ocean people."
Tcieck-rúnen, Seneca name, meaning "seal people."
Ultsehaga, Kenai name, meaning "slaves."
Connections. The Eskimo constituted one
linguistic stock, the dialects of which were in general very close
together, but the Aleut (q. v.) of Alaska formed a somewhat
divergent group. Chiefly on physical grounds they are usually set
apart from all other aborigines of America.
Location. The Eskimo are known to have extended anciently
from Mingan opposite Anticosti Island, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence,
around the entire northeastern and northern coasts of Canada to the
Alaskan boundary except for the southwest coast of Hudson Bay, and
to have occupied Baffin Land and many of the other Islands of the
Arctic Archipelago, both sides of Smith Sound, and the entire west
coast and most of the east coast of greenland. In later times they
retired from northeastern greenland, from the north coast of the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and from part of the west coast of Hudson Bay.
Their occupancy of the Mingan section of Labrador appears to have
been brief. They fringed the coast of Alaska almost completely to
Copper River and in part a little beyond, and had settled along the
north coast of Siberia. (See also Alaska.)
The Eskimo were subdivided into a very large number
of local groups always changing, and any list of these is highly
conventional. The following is believed to include the most
important names and is based upon the best authorities available.
The enumeration is from east to west, except for Greenland, omitting
of course those territories occupied in early historic times and now
I. Labrador Eskimo: Aivitumiut, about Rigolet.
Avitumiut, about Hopedale.
Chuckbuckmiut, in Saglek Bay.
Itivimiut, on the east coast of Hudson Bay.
Kanithlualukshuamiut, on George River.
Kigiktagmiut, on the Belcher Islands and other islands off the east
shore of Hudson Bay.
Killinunmiut, at Cape Chidley.
Koksoakmiut, between Whale and Payne Rivers, especially on Koksoak
Netcetumiut, about Cartwright, in Sandwich Bay.
Nunenumiut, about Nain.
Nuvugmiut, at Cape Wolstenholme.
Puthlvamiut, in Battle Harbor, Labrador.
Unavamiut, at Hopes Advance.
II. Central Eskimo: Aivillirmiut, in Wager Inlet and along the
coast from Cape Fullerton to Cape Penrhyn.
Akudnirmiut, from Home Bay to Scott Inlet.
Akuliarmiut, from Icy Cape to beyond Amadjuak Bay.
Akulliakatagmiut, on the south shore of Dolphin and Union Straits.
Arveqtormiut, in Bellot Strait.
Arviligyuarmiut, from Committee Bay nearly to Rae Strait.
Asiagmiut, opposite Melbourne Island.
Ekaluktogmiut, from Dease Strait to Denmark Bay.
Haneragmiut, on the north shore of Dolphin and Union Straits west of
Haningayormiut, on the upper course of Backs River.
Harvaqtormiut, on Mistake Bay.
Hauheqtormiut, from Pistol Bay to Rankin Inlet.
Iglulirmiut, on Fury and Hecla Straits.
Iluilermiut, on Adelaide Peninsula and King William Island.
Kanghiryuachiakmiut, in Minto Inlet.
Kanghiryuarmiut, on the south coast of Banks Island and Prince
Kiglinirmiut,ontheeasternend of Victoria Island.
Kilusiktomiut, on Bathurst Inlet, on the mainland.
Kingnaitmiut, over most of the northern shore of Cumberland Sound.
Kogloktogmiut, on the lower course of Coppermine River.
Nagyuktogmiut, on the north shore of Coronation Gulf.
Nedlungmiut, between Jones' Sound and Norwegian Bay, Ellesmere Land.
Nenitagmiut, on Arctic Sound.
Netsilingmiut, on Boothia Peninsula.
Noahonirmiut, at Cape Krusenstern.
Nugumiut, in Frobisher Bay.
Padlimiut, two groups: (1) from Cape Dier to Home Bay; (2) from Cape
Esquimaux to Ferguson River on the west coast of Hudson Bay.
Pilingmiut, at the end of Fox Channel (?).
Pingangnaktogmiut, on the south shore of Coronation Gulf.
Puivlirmiut, on the north shore of Dolphin and Union Strait west of
Lady Franklin Point.
Qaernermiut, Chesterfield Inlet.
Qaumauangmiut, from Resolution Island to Icy Cove, Baffin Island.
Qinguamiut, at the head of Cumberland Sound.
Sagdlirmiut, on the south coast of Southampton Island.
Saumingmiut, between Cape Mercy and Exeter Sound.
Sikosuilarmiut, about King Charles Cape.
Sinimiut, on Pelly Bay.
Talirpingmiut, on the south shore of Cumberland Sound and Netilling
Tununerusirmiut, in Admiralty Inlet.
Tununirmiut, in Ponds Inlet and Eclipse Sound and on both sides of
Lancaster Sound at its east end.
Ukkusiksaligmiut, on the lower part of Backs River.
Wallirmiut, from Rae River to Dease Bay on Great Bear Lake.
III. Mackenzie Eskimo:
Avvagmiut, between Franklin Bay and Liverpool Bay.
Kigirktarugmiut, from the mouth of the Mackenzie River into Alaska.
Kittegaryumiut, on the west side of Mackenzie Delta.
Kurugmiut, on Hutchison Bay.
Nuvorugmiut, from Anderson River to Cape Brown.
IV. The Greenland tribes are as follows, these divisions being
named for the most part for modern places:
Godthaab. Nugsuak (two groups (1) on the south
Holstensborg. side of Nugsuak Peninsula; (2) from
Igdlorssuit. Melville Bay to Cape Shackleton).
Ita Eskimo. Pamiagdluk.
Kangatsiak. Tasiusak, about the place so-called.
Nanortalik. Upernivik, about Upernivik.
V. Alaskan Eskimo tribes and towns:
|Aglemiut, from the mouth of Nushagak River
to Heiden Bay, including these villages:
||Igagik, at the mouth of Ugaguk River.
Ikak, near Naknek Lake.
Kingiak, on the north side of the mouth of Naknek River,
Paugwik, with Aleut, at the mouth of Naknek River, on the
Ugashik, at the mouth of Ugashik River.
Unangashik, at Heiden Bay, Alaska Peninsula.
|Chingigmiut, in the region of
Cape Newenham and Cape Peirce; villages:
||Aziavik, near Cape Peirce.
Kinegnak, on Cape Newenham.
Tsahavak, near Cape Newenham.
|Chnagmiut, on the shore of
Pastol Bay, in the Yukon Delta, and on both banks of Yukon
River as far as Razboinski; villages:
||Aiachagiuk, on the right bank of the Yukon
near the head of the delta.
Aimgua, near the mouth of Yukon River.
Alexeief, in the Yukon Delta.
Andreafski, on the north bank of Yukon River 5 miles above's
former Russian redoubt of that name.
Ankachak, on the right bank of the lower Yukon, perhaps
identical with Kenunimik.
Apoon, on Apoon Pass, the northern mouth of the Yukon River.
Ariswaniski, on the right bank of the lower Yukon.
Avnulik, the exact location not given.
Chatinak, near the mouth of Yukon River.
Chefoklak, near the head of Yukon Delta.
Chukchuk, in the Yukon Delta.
Claikehak, on the north bank of Yukon River above Tlatek.
Fetkina, on the north arm of Yukon Delta.
Ingichuk, in the Yukon Delta.
Kanig, on the north bank of Yukon River near its mouth.
Kashutuk, on an island in the Yukon Delta.
Kenuninuk, given as 15 miles above Andreafski on the right
bank but perhaps identical with Ankachak.
Komarof, on the north bank of Yukon River.
Kotlik, on Kotlik River.
Kusilvak, on Kusilvak Island at the mouth of Yukon River.
Kwiahok, at the southern mouth of the Kwikluak Pass of the
Nigiklik, at the head of the Yukon Delta.
Ninvok, near the Yukon Delta.
Nokrot, near Cape Romanzof on the coast of Norton Sound.
Nunapithlugak, in the Yukon Delta, on the right bank of
Onuganuk, at the Kwikluak mouth of the Yukon.
Pastoliak, on the right bank of Pastoliak River near the
southern shore of Norton Sound.
Razboinski, on the right bank of the Yukon near the head of
Starik, on the south bank of Yukon River above the head of
Takshak, on the north bank of the Yukon near Razboinski.
Tiatiuk, in the Yukon Delta.
Tlatek, on the north bank of Yukon River 35 miles above
|Chugachigmiut, from the western
extremity of Kenai Peninsula to the delta of Copper River;
||Ingamatsha, on Chenega Island, Prince
Kanikluk, on the north shore of Prince William Sound.
Kiniklik, on the north shore of Prince William Sound.
Nuchek, where the Russians established a stockade and
trading post known as Fort Konstantine, at Port Etches,
Hinchinbrook Island, Prince William Sound.
Tatitlek, on the northeastern shore of Prince William Sound.
|Ikogmiut, on both banks of
Yukon River from the territory of the Chnagmiut as far
inland as Makak; villages:
||Asko, on the right bank of the lower Yukon
Bazhi, on the Yukon at the upper mouth of Innoko River.
Ignok, on the right bank of the Yukon near Koserefski.
Ikatlek, on the Yukon 30 miles below Anvik.
Ikogmiut, also called "Mission," on the Yukon near its
Ikuak, on the Yukon at its southernmost bend.
Ingrakak, on the right bank of the Yukon near longitude
Katagkak, on Innoko River above its junction with the Yukon.
Khaik, on the northern bank of Yukon River nearly opposite
Koserefski; given once apparently as Claikehak.
Kikhkat, on the north bank of Yukon River near Ikogmiut.
Kochkok, on the right bank of Yukon River near the Kuskokwim
Koko, on the north bank of the Yukon below Ikogmiut.
Koserefski, formerly Kaiyuhkhotana, on the left bank of the
Yukon near the mouth of Shageluk slough.
Kuyikanuikpul, on the right bank of Yukon River below
Kvikak, formerly Kaiyuhkhotana, on Yukon River 30 miles
Makak, on the right bank of the Yukon below Anvik.
Nukluak, on the left bank of the Yukon opposite Ikogmiut
Nunaikak, on the Yukon opposite Koserefski, perhaps the same
Nunaktak, on Yukon River above Anvik.
Paimiut, on the southern bank of the Yukon 38 miles above
Ikogmiut, latitude 62°10' N., longtitude 160°10' W.
Pogoreshapka, on the right bank of the Yukon about 20 miles
Ribnaia, on the right bank of the Yukon above Ikogmiut.
Staria Selenie, on the Yukon River below Ikogmiut.
Uglovaia, on the right bank of the lower Yukon between
Ikogmiut and Razboinski.
Ukak, on the Yukon nearly opposite Koserefski, perhaps the
same as Nunaikak.
Imaklimiut, on Big Diomede Island in Bering Strait in U. S.
S. R. territory.
Inguklimiut, on Little Diomede Island in Bering Strait;
their village called Inalik.
Kagmalirmiut, on the lower course of Colville River but not
extending to its mouth.
|Kaialigmiut, north of the
Kuskwogmiut, between Kuguktik River and Cape Romanzof and on
Nelson Island; villages:
||Agiukchuk, opposite the southern shore of
Anogok, on the coast just west of Kuskokwim Bay; given by
Porter (1893) as Magemiut but actually Kaialigmiut.
Asiknuk, on Hooper Bay near Cape Romansof.
Chichinak, on a small river flowing into Etolin Strait.
Kaialik, in the Yukon Delta near Asun River.
Chalit, on the left bank of Kuguklik River, northwest of
Igiak, inland from Scammon Bay and near Magemiut territory.
Kashigalak, in the center of Nelson Island.
Kashunuk, near the Kaskunuk outlet of the Yukon River.
Kenachananak, on the coast opposite Nunivak Island.
Kuskunuk, on Hooper Bay.
Kvigatluk, in the lake district northwest of Kuskokwim
Nuloktolok, on the south side of Nelson Island.
Nunvogulukhluguk, in the Big Lake region.
Nushanamut, south of Hooper Bay.
Sfaganuk, between Dall Lake and Etolin Strait.
Ukak, on Hazen Bay.
Ukuk, on Nelson Island.
Unakagak, at the head of Hazen Bay.
|Kaniagmiut, on Kodiak Island
and the mainland coast from Iliamna Lake to Ugashik River,
and the southern coast to longitude 159° W.; villages:
||Afognak, comprising 3 settlements on Afognak
Aiaktalik, on one of the Goose Islands near Kodiak.
Akhiok, on Alitak Bay, Kodiak Island.
Aleksashkina, on Wood Island in St. Paul Harbor, Kodiak
Alexandrovsk, on Graham Harbor.
Ashivak, near Cape Douglas.
Chiniak, at the east end of Kodiak Island.
Fugitive, at Hobson Harbor, Sitkalidak Island near Kodiak.
Igak, on Afognak Island east of Afognak.
Kaguyak, on the southwestern coast of Kodiak Island.
Kaluiak, on Chignik Bay.
Kanatak, on Shelikof Strait.
Karluk, on the northern coast of Kodiak Island.
Katmai, on the southeastern coast of Alaska Peninsula.
Kattak, on Afognak Island east of Afognak.
Kiliuda, on the eastern coast of Kodiak Island.
Kodiak, established by the Russians, on the eastern end of
Kuiukuk, on the southeastern coast of Alaska Peninsula.
Kukak, on Kukak Bay on the coast of Alaska Peninsula.
Liesnoi, on Wood Island near Kodiak.
Mitrofania, on Mitrofania Island, south of Chignik Bay.
Nauklak, 15 miles east of Naknek Lake, Alaska Peninsula.
Nunamiut, on Three Saints Harbor, Kodiak Island.
Nunikiak, on the southwestern shore of Afognak Island.
Orlova, at Eagle Harbor, Ugak Bay, Kodiak Island.
Ostrovki, on Kachemak Bay, on the coast of Kenai Peninsula.
Seldovia, on the south side of Kachemak Bay, on the west
coast of Kenai Peninsula.
Sutkum, on Sutwik Island off the southern coast of Alaska
Three Saints, on the site of the oldest Russian settlement
in Alaska, Kodiak Island.
Uganik, on the northern coast of Kodiak Island.
Uhaskek, on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island.
Ukshivikak, on the southwestern coast of Kodiak Island.
Uyak, near the salmon canneries on Uyak Bay, Kodiak Island.
Uzinki, on Spruce Island, Kodiak group.
Yalik, on Nuka Bay, eastern coast of Kenai Peninsula.
Yelovoi, on Spruce Island, Kodiak group.
|Kańianermiut, on the headwaters
of Colville River.
|Kaviagmiut, on the southern
part of Seward Peninsula westward from Norton Bay, many
wintering on the eastern shore of Norton Sound; villages:
Aiacheruk, near Cape Nome.
||Akpaliut, on Norton Sound west of Golofnin
Anelo, at Port Clarence.
Anlik, on Golofnin Bay.
Atnuk, near Darby Cape.
Aziak, on Sledge Island.
Chaik, on the shore of Norton Sound.
Chainruk, at Port Clarence.
Chinik, on Golofnin Bay.
Chiukak, on the peninsula enclosing Golofnin Bay.
Iknetuk, on Golofnin Bay.
Imoktegokshuk, at Cape Nome.
Kachegaret, at Port Clarence.
Kalulek, at Port Clarence.
Kaveazruk, at Port Clarence.
Kaviak, southeast of Port Clarence.
Kogluk, at Cape Nome.
Kovogzruk, at Port Clarence.
Metukatoak, at Port Clarence.
Netsekawik, on Golofnin Bay.
Okinoyoktokawik, on the coast opposite Sledge Island.
Opiktulik, on the north shore of Norton Sound.
Perebluk, at Port Clarence.
Senikave, on the mainland opposite Sledge Island.
Shinnapago, at Port Clarence.
Siningmon, on Golofnin Bay.
Sitnazuak, west of Cape Nome.
Sunvalluk, on the coast opposite Sledge Island.
Takchuk, east of Port Clarence.
Tubuktolik, on the north shore of Norton Sound.
Uinuk, at the mouth of Nome River.
Ukivok, on King Island.
Ukodlint, on Golofnin Bay.
|Kevalingamiut, on the coast of
the Arctic Ocean from Cape Seppings and Cape Krusenstern
inland to Nunatak River. Later they moved farther north,
expelling the Tikeramiut from Port Hope and the district
||Ipnot, at Point Thomson.
Kechemudluk, at Cape Seppings.
Kivualinak, near Port Hope.
Ulezara, near Cape Kruzenstern.
|Kiatagmiut, on Kvichivak River
and Iliamna Lake; villages:
||Chikak, on Iliamna Lake.
Kakonak, on the south shore of Iliamna Lake.
Kaskanak, on Kvichak River where it flows from Lake Iliamna.
Kichik, on Kichik Lake east of Iliamna Lake.
Kogiung, on Bristol Bay at the mouth of Kvichak River.
Kvichak, on Kvichak River.
Nogeling, on the outlet of Lake Clark.
Manning Point and the mouth of the Mackenzie River.
||Killinermiut, on the middle course of
Kinugumiut, on Seward Peninsula in the region about Cape
Prince of Wales; villages:
Eidenu, at Cape Prince of Wales.
Kigegen, inland from Cape Prince of Wales.
Mitletukeruk, location unknown.
Nuk, at Port Clarence.
Pikta, near Cape Prince of Wales.
Shishmaref, at Shishmaref Cape.
Sinauk, on the north shore of Port Clarence.
Niktak, on Cape Prince of Wales.
|Kowagmiut, on Kowak River east
of Kotzebue Sound; villages:
||Kikiktak, at the mouth of Hotham Inlet,
Kowak, at the mouth of Kowak River.
Umnokalukta, on Black River, a branch of Kowak River.
Unatak, on Kowak River.
Sheshalek, on the north shore of Kotzebue Sound, near the
mouth of Noatak River, a trading settlement for several
|Kukparungmiut, on the Arctic
Ocean between Point Belcher and Cape Beaufort; village:
||Kokolik, at Point Lay.
|Kunmiut, on Kuk River above
Wainright Inlet; village:
||Kilimantavie, on the Arctic coast west of
|Kuskwogmiut, on the shores of
Kuskokwim Bay and the banks of Kuskokwim River as far inland
as Kolmakof; villages:
||Agomekelenanak, in the Kuskokwim district.
Agulakpak, near Kuskokwim River.
Aguliak, on the eastern shore of Kuskokwim Bay.
Agumak, location not given.
Akiachak, on Kuskokwim River.
Akiak, on Kuskokwim River.
Aklut, on Kuskokwim River at the mouth of the Eek.
Akmiut, on Kuskokwim River 10 miles above Kolmakof, also
given as a Taiyanyanokhotana (Koyukon) village, perhaps
Eskimoised in later time.
Anagok, on the coast near Cape Avinof.
Apahiachak, location uncertain.
Apokak, near the mouth of Kuskokwim River.
Atchaluk, location uncertain.
Bethel, a Moravian Mission, close to Mumtrelek.
Chimiak, on Kuskokwim River.
Chuarlitilik, on Kanektok River.
Ekaluktaluk, location uncertain.
Etoluk, location uncertain.
Igiakchak, location uncertain.
Iliutak, on Kuskokwim Bay.
Kahmiut, location uncertain.
Kakuiak, on Kuskokwim River.
Kaltshak, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River about
longitude 161° (159° ?) W.
Kaluktuk, location uncertain.
Kamegli, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River above Bethel.
Kanagak, location uncertain.
Kanak, location uncertain.
Kenachananak, on the coast opposite Nunivok Island.
Kiktak, on an island in Kuskokwim River 25 miles above
Kinak, on the north bank of the Kuskokwim River.
Kinegnagak, location uncertain.
Klchakuk, on the east side of the entrance to Kuskokwim Bay.
Kleguchek, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River at its
Klutak, location uncertain.
Kolmakof, a Moravian mission consisting of Eskimo mixed with
Athapascans, 200 miles from the mouth of the Kuskokwim
Kongiganak, near the entrance to Kuskokwim Bay.
Kuilkluk, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River, perhaps
identical with a town given as Quieclohchamiut or
Kukluktuk, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River 30 miles
Kulvagavik, on the west shore of Kuskokwim Bay.
Kuskok, on Kuskokwim River near its mouth.
Kuskovak, on the west bank of Kuskokwim River near its
Kweleluk, on a small river in the tundra north of Kuskokwim
Kwik, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River 10 miles above
Kwikak, on upper Kuskokwim River.
Kwilokuk, location uncertain.
Kwinak, on the east side of Kuskokwim River near its mouth.
Lomavik, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River.
Mumtrak, on Good News Bay.
Mumtrelek, on the west bank of lower Kuskokwim River.
Nak, on the north bank of Kuskokwim River.
Nakolvakik, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River near the
Napai, mixed with Athapascans, on the bank of Kuskokwim
River a little above Kolmakof.
Napaiskak, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River about 4 miles
Napakiak, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River about 10
miles below Bethel.
Nochak, on Chilitna River.
Novotoklak, location uncertain.
Okaganak, on the south bank of Kuskokwim River.
Oknagak, on the north bank of Kuskokwim River.
Oyak, on the east shore of Kuskokwim Bay, just north of the
mouth of Kanektok River.
Papka, on the north shore of Kuskokwim Bay.
Shevenak, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River.
Shiniak, on the east shore of Kuskokwim Bay at the end of
Shokfak, on a lake in the tundra north of Kuskokwim Bay.
Takiketak, on the east shore of Kuskokwim Bay.
Togiaratsorik, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River.
Tuklak, on Kuskokwim River below the Yukon portage.
Tuluka, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River.
Tuluksak, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River 40 miles above
Tunagak, location uncertain.
Ugovik, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River.
Uknavik, on Kuskokwim River 10 miles below the Yukon
Ulokak, location uncertain.
Vinasale, a trading post on the upper Kuskokwim.
Yakchilak, near the mouth of Kuskokwim River.
|Magemiut, in the lake country
of Alaska from Cape Romanzof almost to the Yukon River,
||Anogok, see Kaialigmiut.
Chefoklak, on the left bank of Yukon River at the head of
Gilak, near Cape Romansof.
Kipniak, at the mouth of the southern arm of Yukon River.
Kweakpak, in the tundra south of the Yukon Delta.
Kwikak, on the coast of the Yukon Delta, south of Black
Nanvogaloklak, on one of the lakes connected with Kvichivak
Nunochok, in the Big Lake region.
Tefaknak, south of the Yukon Delta.
Tiengak, on Kvichavak River.
|Malemiut, on the coast of
Norton Sound north of Shaktolik, and on the neck of Seward
||Akchadak-kochkond, location uncertain.
Atten, near the source of Buckland River.
Chamisso, on Chamisso Island in Eschscholtz Bay.
Inglutaligemiut, on Inglutalik River.
Kongik, on Buckland or Konguk River.
Koyuktolik, on Koyuk River.
Kugaluk, on Spafarief Bay on the shore of Kotsebue Sound.
Kungugemiut, on Buckland River.
Kviguk, at the mouth of Kviguk River, on the shore of Norton
Kvinkak, on Kvinkak River at the upper end of Norton Sound.
Kwik, two villages: (1) on a stream near the head of Norton
Sound; (2) on the west side of Bald Head, Norton Bay.
Nubviakchugaluk, on the north coast of Norton Sound.
Nuklit, near Cape Denbigh, Norton Sound.
Shaktolik, on the east coast of Norton Sound.
Taapkuk, at Cape Espenberg, Kotzebue Sound.
Ulukuk, on Ulukuk River east of Norton Sound.
Ungalik, at the mouth of Ungalik River at the eastern end of
|Noatagmiut, on the lower course
of Noatak River; villages:
||Aniyak, on the Arctic coast just north of
Kotzebue Sound (?).
Noatak, on the lower course of Noatak River.
|Nunatagmiut, on the upper
course of Noatak River.
||Nunivagmiut, occupying the greater part of
Nunivak Island and a small district about Cape Vancouver on
Nelson Island; villages:
Chulik, on Nunivak Island, in 1880 comprising two villages
called Chuligmiut and Upper Chuligmiut.
Inger, on Nunivak Island.
Kaliukluk, south of Cape Vancouver on Nelson Island.
Koot, near Cape Etolin, Nunivak Island.
Kwik, on the southern shore of Nunivak Island.
Tanunak, near Cape Vancouver, Nelson Island.
|Nushagagmiut, on the banks of
Igushik, Wood, and Nushagak Rivers and the shores of
Nushagak Bay; villages:
||Agivavik, on Nushagak River.
Akak, location uncertain.
Akuliukpak, on Pamiek Lake.
Akulivikchuk, on Nushagak River.
Anagnak, on Wood River.
Angnovchak, location uncertain.
Annugamok, on an eastern tributary of Nushagak River.
Ekuk, near the mouth of Nushagak River.
Golok, location uncertain, perhaps the same as Kalignak.
Igivachok, location uncertain.
Igushik, on Igushik River.
Imiak, at the outlet of Aleknagik Lake.
Insiachak, location uncertain.
Kakuak, 60 miles up Nushagak River.
Kalignak, on a tributary of Nushagak River.
Kanakanak, on Nushagak Bay.
Kanulik, on the left bank of Nushagak River near its mouth.
Mulchatna, on Mulchatna River, a branch of Nushagak River.
Stugarok, on Nushagak Bay.
Tikchik, on Lake Tikchik, on the Kuskokwim portage.
Trinachak, location uncertain.
Vuikhtulik, on the northern shore of Lake Alaknakik.
Yaoherk, location uncertain, perhaps identical with Ekuk.
|Nuwukmiut, at Point Barrow;
||Isutkwa, on the site of the United States
Signal Station at Point Barrow.
Nuwuk, at Point Barrow.
Pernyu, on the western shore of Elson Bay, close to Point
Ongovehenok, on Kugrua River near Point Barrow.
|Selawigmiut, on Selawik Lake
east of Kotzebue Sound:
||Sidarumiut, west of Point Barrow; villages:
Atnik, near Point Belcher.
Attenok, on Seahorse Islands.
Charnroruit, on Seahorse Islands.
Nunaria, near Point Belcher.
Perignak, on Seahorse Islands.
Pinguishuk, on Seahorse Islands.
Sidaru, between Wainwright Inlet and Point Belcher.
|Tikeramiut, at Point Hope;
||Tikera or Nuna, at Point Hope.
|Togiagmiut, about Togiak Bay
and River; villages:
||Aguliukpak, on lake of same name at head of
Eklik, on Togiak River near its mouth.
Kashaiak, on Togiak River near its junction with the Kashiak
Kassiank, on Togiak River.
Kulukak, on Kukulak Bay.
Togiak, at the mouth of Togiak River.
Tuniakpuk, on lower Togiak River.
Ualik, on Kulukak Bay.
|Ugalakmiut, at the mouth of
Copper River and on Kayak Island; in later years they became
thoroughly altered by center with the Tlingit so that they
were often classed with the latter people. Village:
||Eyak, at the entrance of Prince William
|Unaligmiut, extending from the
eastern shore of Norton Sound inland to the coast range;
||Anemuk, on Anvik River.
Iguik, on Norton Sound.
Kiktaguk, on the southern coast of Norton Sound.
Pikmiktalik, near the mouth of Pikmiktalik River, just north
of Cape Romanzof.
Tachik, on St. Michael Island, near the Russian redoubt, and
now included in the town of St. Michael.
Topanika, on the eastern coast of Norton Sound.
Unalaklik, at the mouth of Unalalik River.
|Utkiavinmiut, on the Arctic
coast west of Point Barrow; villages and summer camps:
||Ernivwin, inland from Point Barrow.
Imekpung, near Point Barrow.
Ipersua, not accurately located.
Kuosugru, on a dry place inland from Point Barrow.
Nakeduxo, not accurately located.
Nunaktuau, close to Refuge Inlet.
Pengnok, near Cape Smythe.
Sakamna, inland from Point Barrow.
Sinyu, inland from Point Barrow.
Utkiavi, at Cape Smythe.
Walakpa, not located definitely.
|Utukamiut, originating at Icy
Cape; they later ranged along the Arctic coast from Point
Hope to Wainright Inlet, and inland to Colville River;
||Kaiaksekawik, on the north side of Icy Cape.
Kelemanturuk, near Icy Cape.
Utuka, at Icy Cape.
|Yuit, around East Cape, Indian
Point, and Cape Chukotsky Siberia, and on St. Lawrence
Island, Alaska; and divided into:
||1. The Noökalit, at East Cape; villages:
Enmitahin, north of East Cape.
Nabukak, on East Cape.
Ulak, inhabited in part by Chukchi, just north of East Cape.
||2. The Aiwanat, about Indian Point;
Avak, near Cape Chukotsky.
Imtuk, near Indian Point.
Napakutak, on an island near Indian Point (?).
Nasskatulok, at the head of Plover Bay.
Rirak, in Plover Bay.
Tesik, occupied partly by Chukchi, on the west shore of
Unisak, on Indian Point.
||3. The Wuteëlit, at Cape Ulakhpen; villages:
Chenlin, including Chukchi, west of the next.
Cherinak, near Cape Ulakhpen.
||4. The Eiwhuelit, on St. Lawrence Island;
Chibukak, at Northwest Cape.
Chitnak, on the south coast.
Kialegak, near Southeast Cape.
Kukuliak, on the north coast.
Puguviliak, at Southwest Cape.
Punuk, on Punuk Island, east of St. Lawrence Island.
History. The Norse settlers of Greenland were
the first white men to come in contact with Eskimo, though it is
probable that the latter had relatively little to do with the
extermination of the European colonists as was once thought. They
were rediscovered by Frobisher or perhaps even earlier explorers and
contact between White and Eskimo was continuous from that time
forward. In the eighteenth century the Danes began to resettle
Greenland, and about the same time relations were opened between the
western Eskimo and the Russians. The Eskimo of Labrador were
missionized by Moravians, whose efforts among them are famous in the
annals of missionary work. The central Eskimo were not reached until
much later than those of the east and west, the first Europeans to
come in contact with them being usually whalers, though some of the
eighteenth-century explorers, such as Hearne (1795), reached them
overland from the south. Many of their tribes were scarcely known at
all until the recent explorations of Stefánsson (1914) and Jenness
Population. Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 3,600 Eskimo
in Labrador in 1600 and 22,300 in the rest of Canada in 1670; 10,000
in Greenland in 1721; and 40,000 in Alaska in 1740. As Mooney in
preparing the data for each of his areas selects a date just before
contact with the Whites made itself felt appreciably, we may assume
that the figures given had remained relatively stationary for a
considerable period and add them together for our total, which is
75,900. For the entire Eskimo population we must add 1,200 living in
Asia, which gives us 77,100. To obtain the population of the
linguistic stock we must increase this by the number of the Aleut,
16,000, making 93,100. Jenness thinks Mooney's estimates are much
too high. He has kindly supplied me with the following figures for
the present population: Canada, 6,184 (Ann. Rep. Dept. Ind. Aff. for
1927); Greenland, 14,066 (Statistisk Aarbog for 1922, Copenhagen,
1922), including, however about 300 Europeans; Alaska, 13,698
(census of 1920); Labrador (from an estimate before it was entirely
united to Canada), probably not over 1,200 since a large part of the
Peninsula was included in Canada. This gives a total of
Connection in which they have become noted. From the time
when they were first known to Europeans, the Eskimo were marked off
from all other peoples in the minds of the former by their peculiar
physical type, and the unique character of their customs and manner
of life. They are distinguished as having been the first of all
people of America to encounter Europeans, and they have earned an
honorable name for themselves through the assistance they have
rendered to Arctic explorers at all periods. They may be called the
one people who did not have to discover America, since they lived on
both sides of Bering Strait and hence in both the New and the Old