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Bibliographical Note, Aboriginal Canada
The Icelandic sagas contain legends of a discovery
of America before Columbus. Benjamin de Costa, in his 'Pre-Columbian
Discovery of America', has given translations of a number of
these legends. Other works bearing on this mythical period are: A.
M. Reeves's 'The Finding of Wineland the Good'; J. E. Olson's
'The Voyages of the Northmen' in Vol. I of the 'Original
Narrative of Early American History', edited by J. F. Jameson;
Fridtjof Nansen's 'In Northern Mists'; and John Fiske's 'The
Discovery of America'. A number of general histories have
chapters bearing on pre-Columbian discovery; the most accessible of
these are: Justin Winsor's 'Narrative and Critical History of
America'; Charlevoix's 'Histoire et description generale de
la Nouvelle France' (1744), translated with notes by J. G. Shea
(1886); Henry Harrisse's 'Discovery of North America'; and
the 'Conquest of Canada', by the author of 'Hochelaga'.
There are numerous works in the Spanish, French, Italian, and
English languages dealing with Columbus and his time. Pre-eminent
among the latter are: Irving's 'Life of Columbus'; Winsor's 'Christopher
Columbus and how he Received and Imparted the Spirit of Discovery';
Helps's 'Life of Columbus'; Prescott's 'History of
Ferdinand and Isabella'; Crompton's 'Life of Columbus';
St John's 'Life of Columbus'; and Major's 'Select Letters
of Columbus' (a Hakluyt Society publication). Likewise in every
important work which deals with the early history of North or South
America, Columbus and his voyages are discussed.
The literature dealing with the Cabots is quite as voluminous as
that bearing on Columbus. Henry Harrisse's 'John Cabot, the
Discoverer of North America and Sebastian, his Son; a Chapter of the
Maritime History of England under the Tudors, 1496-1557', is a
most exhaustive work. Other authoritative works on the Cabots are
Nichols's 'Remarkable Life, Adventures, and Discoveries of
Sebastian Cabot', in which an effort is made to give the chief
glory of the discovery of America not to John Cabot, but to his son
Sebastian; Dawson's 'The Voyages of the Cabots, 1497 and 1498',
'The Voyages of the Cabots, a Sequel', and 'The Voyages of
the Cabots, Latest Phases of the Controversy', in 'Transactions
Royal Society of Canada'; Biddle's 'Memoir of Sebastian Cabot';
Beazley's 'John and Sebastian Cabot, The Discovery of North
America'; and Weare's 'Cabot's Discovery of America'.
A number of European writers have made able studies of the work of
Verrazano, and two American scholars have contributed valuable works
on that explorer's life and achievements; these are, De Costa's 'Verrazano
the Explorer: a Vindication of his Letter and Voyage', and
Murphy's 'The Voyage of Verrazano'.
In addition to the general histories already mentioned, the
following works contain much information on the voyages of the
forerunners of Jacques Cartier: Parkman's 'Pioneers of France';
Kohl's 'Discovery of Maine'; Woodbury's 'Relation of the
Fisheries to the Discovery of North America' (in this work it is
claimed that the Basques antedated the Cabots); Dawson's 'The St
Lawrence Basin and Its Borderlands'; Weise's 'The Discoveries
of America'; 'The Journal of Christopher Columbus', and 'Documents
relating to the Voyages of John Cabot and Gaspar Corte-Real',
translated with Notes and an Introduction by Sir Clements R.
Markham; and Biggar's 'The Precursors of Jacques Cartier,
1497-1534'. This last work is essential to the student of the
early voyages to America. It contains documents, many published for
the first time, in Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, and French
dealing with exploration. The notes are invaluable, and the
documents, with the exception of those in French, are carefully
though freely translated.
For the native tribes of America the reader would do well to consult
of American Indians North of Mexico', published by the
Bureau of American Ethnology, and the 'Handbook of Indians of
Canada', reprinted by the Canadian Government, with additions
and minor alterations, from the preceding work, under the direction
of James White, F.R.G.S.
Bibliographical Note, Jacques
A Great many accounts of the voyages of Jacques
Cartier have been written both in French and in English; but the
fountain source of information for all of these is found in the
narratives written by Cartier himself. The story of the first voyage
was written under the name of 'Relation Originale du Voyage de
Jacques Cartier au Canada en 1534.' The original manuscript was
lost from sight for over three hundred years, but about half a
century ago it was discovered in the Imperial Library (now the
National Library) at Paris. Its contents, however, had long been
familiar to English readers through the translation which appears in
Hakluyt's 'Voyages,' published in 1600. In the same
collection is also found the narrative of the second voyage, as
translated from the 'Bref Recit' written by Cartier and
published in 1545, and the fragment of the account of the third
voyage of which the rest is lost. For an exhaustive bibliography of
Cartier's voyages see Baxter, 'A Memoir of Jacques Cartier'
(New York, 1906). An exceedingly interesting little book is Sir
Joseph Pope's 'Jacques Cartier: his Life and Voyages'
(Ottawa, 1890). The student is also recommended to read 'The
Saint Lawrence Basin and its Borderlands,' by Samuel Edward
Dawson; papers by the Abbe Verreau, John Reade, Bishop Howley and W.
F. Ganong in the 'Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada;'
the chapter, 'Jacques Cartier and his Successors,' by B. F. de
Costa, in Winsor's 'Narrative and Critical History of America,'
and the chapter 'The Beginnings of Canada,' by Arthur G.
Doughty, in the first volume of 'Canada and its Provinces'
The best edition of Champlain's own works, in the original text, is
that of Laverdiere--'OEuvres de Champlain, pabliees sous le
Patronage de l'Universite Laval. Par l'Abbe C.-H. Laverdiere, M.A.
Seconde Edition. 6 tomes, 4to. Quebec: Imprime au Seminaire par Geo.
E. Desbarats, 1870.'
The list of Champlain's writings includes:
The 'Bref Discours,' describing his trip to the
The 'Des Sauvages,' describing his first voyage
to the St Lawrence.
The 'Voyages' of 1613, covering the years
The 'Voyages' of 1619, covering the years
The 'Voyages' of 1632, which represent a
re-editing of the early voyages from 1603 forward, and continue
the narrative from 1618 to 1629.
A general treatise on the duties of the mariner.
The 'Bref Discours,' in a translation by Alice
Wilmere, was published by the Hakluyt Society in 1859.
The Des Sauvages (1604) was translated in
'Purchas His Pilgrimes' (1625).
The 'Voyages' of 1604-18 inclusive were
translated by C. P. Otis for the Prince Society of Boston, in
three volumes, 1878-82, with the Rev. E. F. Slafter as editor.
This is a fine work, but not easily accessible in its original
form. Fortunately, Professor Otis's translation has been
reprinted, with an introduction and notes by Professor W. L.
Grant, in the 'Original Narratives of Early American History' (Scribners,
1907). The passages quoted in the present volume are taken from
Otis's translation, with occasional changes.
The 'Voyages' of 1604-16 inclusive have also
been well translated by Annie Nettleton Bourne, with an
introduction and notes by Professor E. G. Bourne (A. S. Barnes
and Co., 1906). This translation follows the edition of 1632,
and also gives the translation of 'Des Souvages' which appears
The career of Champlain is treated in many historical works, of
which the following are a few: Parkman, 'Pioneers of France in
the New World'; Dionne, 'Samuel de Champlain' (in the
Makers of Canada' series); Biggar, 'Early Trading Companies of
New France'; Slafter, 'Champlain' (in Winsor's 'Narrative and
Critical History of America,' vol. iv, part i, chap. iii);
Salone, 'La Colonisation de la Nouvelle France'; Sulte, 'Histoire
des Canadiens-Francais'; Ferland, 'Cours d'Histoire du Canada';
Garneau, 'Histoire du Canada,' fifth edition edited by the
author's grandson, Hector Garneau.
Unfortunately, there is no authentic portrait of Champlain. That
ascribed to Moncornet is undoubtedly spurious, as has been proved by
V. H. Paltsits in 'Acadiensis,' vol. iv, pp. 306-11.
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Chronicles of Canada, The Dawn Of Canadian
History, A Chronicle of Aboriginal Canada, 1915
Chronicles of Canada