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The Snake River Deserts
The Snake River Deserts.—Scanty Fare.—Bewildered
Travellers—Prowling Indians—A Giant Crow Chief.—A Bully
Rebuked—Indian Signals.—Smoke on the Mountains.—Mad River.—An
Alarm.—An Indian Foray—A Scamper.—A Rude Indian joke.—A
Sharp-Shooter Balked of His Shot.
ON the 1st of September, Mr. Stuart and his
companions resumed their journey, bending their course eastward,
along the course of Snake River. As they advanced the country
opened. The hills which had hemmed in the river receded on either
hand, and great sandy and dusty plains extended before them.
Occasionally there were intervals of pasturage, and the banks of the
river were fringed with willows and cottonwood, so that its course
might be traced from the hilltops, winding under an umbrageous
covert, through a wide sunburnt landscape. The soil, however, was
generally poor; there was in some places a miserable growth of
wormwood, and a plant called saltweed, resembling pennyroyal; but
the summer had parched the plains, and left but little pasturage.
The game, too, had disappeared. The hunter looked in vain over the
lifeless landscape; now and then a few antelope might be seen, but
not within reach of the rifle. We forbear to follow the travellers
in a week's wandering over these barren wastes, where they suffered
much from hunger, having to depend upon a few fish from the streams,
and now and then a little dried salmon, or a dog, procured from some
forlorn lodge of Shoshonies.
Tired of these cheerless wastes, they left the banks of Snake River
on the 7th of September, under guidance of Mr. Miller, who having
acquired some knowledge of the country during his trapping campaign,
undertook to conduct them across the mountains by a better route
than that by Fort Henry, and one more out of the range of the
Blackfeet. He proved, however, but an indifferent guide, and they
soon became bewildered among rugged hills and unknown streams, and
burnt and barren prairies.
At length they came to a river on which Mr. Miller had trapped, and
to which they gave his name; though, as before observed, we presume
it to be the same called Bear River, which empties itself into Lake
Bonneville. Up this river and its branches they kept for two or
three days, supporting themselves precariously upon fish. They soon
found that they were in a dangerous neighborhood. On the 12th of
September, having encamped early, they sallied forth with their rods
to angle for their supper. On returning, they beheld a number of
Indians prowling about their camp, whom, to their infinite disquiet,
they soon perceived to be Upsarokas, or Crows. Their chief came
forward with a confident air. He was a dark herculean fellow, full
six feet four inches in height, with a mingled air of the ruffian
and the rogue. He conducted himself peaceably, however, and
despatched some of his people to their camp, which was somewhere in
the neighborhood, from whence they returned with a most acceptable
supply of buffalo meat. He now signified to Mr. Stuart that he was
going to trade with the Snakes who reside on the west base of the
mountains, below Henry's Fort. Here they cultivate a delicate kind
of tobacco, much esteemed and sought after by the mountain tribes.
There was something sinister, however, in the look of this Indian,
that inspired distrust. By degrees, the number of his people
increased, until, by midnight, there were twenty-one of them about
the camp, who began to be impudent and troublesome. The greatest
uneasiness was now felt for the safety of the horses and effects,
and every one kept vigilant watch throughout the night.
The morning dawned, however, without any unpleasant occurrence, and
Mr. Stuart, having purchased all the buffalo meat that the Crows had
to spare, prepared to depart. His Indian acquaintances, however,
were disposed for further dealings; and above all, anxious for a
supply of gunpowder, for which they offered horses in exchange. Mr.
Stuart declined to furnish them with the dangerous commodity. They
became more importunate in their solicitations, until they met with
a flat refusal.
The gigantic chief now stepped forward, assumed a swelling air, and,
slapping himself upon the breast, gave Mr. Crooks to understand that
he was a chief of great power and importance. He signified, further,
that it was customary for great chiefs when they met, to make each
other presents. He requested, therefore, that Mr. Stuart would
alight, and give him the horse upon which he was mounted. This was a
noble animal, of one of the wild races of the prairies; on which Mr.
Stuart set great value; he, of course, shook his head at the request
of the Crow dignitary. Upon this the latter strode up to him, and
taking hold of him, moved him backwards and forwards in his saddle,
as if to make him feel that he was a mere child within his grasp.
Mr. Stuart preserved his calmness, and still shook his head. The
chief then seized the bridle, and gave it a jerk that startled the
horse, and nearly brought the rider to the ground. Mr. Stuart
instantly drew forth a pistol, and presented it at the head of the
bully-ruffian. In a twinkling his swaggering was at an end, and he
dodged behind his horse to escape the expected shot. As his subject
Crows gazed on the affray from a little distance, Mr. Stuart ordered
his men to level their rifles at them, but not to fire. The whole
crew scampered among the bushes, and throwing themselves upon the
ground, vanished from sight.
The chieftain thus left alone was confounded for an instant; but,
recovering himself with true Indian shrewdness, burst into a loud
laugh, and affected to turn off the whole matter as a piece of
pleasantry. Mr. Stuart by no means relished such equivocal joking,
but it was not his policy to get into a quarrel; so he joined with
the best grace he could assume in the merriment of the jocular
giant; and, to console the latter for the refusal of the horse, made
him a present of twenty charges of powder. They parted, according to
all outward professions, the best friends in the world; it was
evident, however, that nothing but the smallness of his own force,
and the martial array and alertness of the white men, had prevented
the Crow chief from proceeding to open outrage. As it was, his
worthy followers, in the course of their brief interview, had
contrived to purloin a bag containing almost all the culinary
utensils of the party.
The travellers kept on their way due east, over a chain of hills.
The recent rencontre showed them that they were now in a land of
danger, subject to the wide roamings of a predacious tribe; nor, in
fact, had they gone many miles before they beheld sights calculated
to inspire anxiety and alarm. From the summits of some of the
loftiest mountains, in different directions, columns of smoke be-an
to rise. These they concluded to be signals made by the runners of
the Crow chieftain, to summon the stragglers of his band, so as to
pursue them with greater force. Signals of this kind, made by
outrunners from one central point, will rouse a wide circuit of the
mountains in a wonderfully short space of time; and bring the
straggling hunters and warriors to the standard of their chieftain.
To keep as much as possible out of the way of these freebooters, Mr.
Stuart altered his course to the north, and, quitting the main
stream of Miller's River, kept up a large branch that came in from
the mountains. Here they encamped, after a fatiguing march of
twenty-five miles. As the night drew on, the horses were hobbled or
fettered, and tethered close to the camp; a vigilant watch was
maintained until morning, and every one slept with his rifle on his
At sunrise, they were again on the march, still keeping to the
north. They soon began to ascend the mountains, and occasionally had
wide prospects over the surrounding country. Not a sign of a Crow
was to be seen; but this did not assure them of their security, well
knowing the perseverance of these savages in dogging any party they
intend to rob, and the stealthy way in which they can conceal their
movements, keeping along ravines and defiles. After a mountain
scramble of twenty-one miles, they encamped on the margin of a
stream running to the north.
In the evening there was an alarm of Indians, and everyone was
instantly on the alert. They proved to be three miserable Snakes,
who were no sooner informed that a band of Crows was prowling in the
neighborhood than they made off with great signs of consternation.
A couple more of weary days and watchful nights brought them to a
strong and rapid stream, running due north, which they concluded to
be one of the upper branches of Snake River. It was probably the
same since called Salt River.
They determined to bend their course down this river, as it would
take them still further out of the dangerous neighborhood of the
Crows. They then would strike upon Mr. Hunt's track of the preceding
autumn, and retrace it across the mountains. The attempt to find a
better route under guidance of Mr. Miller had cost them a large bend
to the south; in resuming Mr. Hunt's track, they would at least be
sure of their road. They accordingly turned down along the course of
this stream, and at the end of three days' journey came to where it
was joined by a larger river, and assumed a more impetuous
character, raging and roaring among rocks and precipices. It proved,
in fact, to be Mad River, already noted in the expedition of Mr.
Hunt. On the banks of this river, they encamped on the 18th of
September, at an early hour.
Six days had now elapsed since their interview with the Crows;
during that time they had come nearly a hundred and fifty miles to
the north and west, without seeing any signs of those marauders.
They considered themselves, therefore, beyond the reach of
molestation, and began to relax in their vigilance, lingering
occasionally for part of a day, where there was good pasturage. The
poor horses needed repose.
They had been urged on, by forced marches, over rugged heights,
among rocks and fallen timber, or over low swampy valleys, inundated
by the labors of the beaver. These industrious animals abounded in
all the mountain streams and watercourses, wherever there were
willows for their subsistence. Many of them they had so completely
dammed up as to inundate the low grounds, making shallow pools or
lakes, and extensive quagmires; by which the route of the travellers
was often impeded.
On the 19th of September, they rose at early dawn; some began to
prepare breakfast, and others to arrange the packs preparatory to a
march. The horses had been hobbled, but left at large to graze upon
the adjacent pasture. Mr. Stuart was on the bank of a river, at a
short distance from the camp, when he heard the alarm cry—"Indians!
Indians!—to arms! to arms!"
A mounted Crow galloped past the camp, bearing a red flag. He reined
his steed on the summit of a neighboring knoll, and waved his
flaring banner. A diabolical yell now broke forth on the opposite
side of the camp, beyond where the horses were grazing, and a small
troop of savages came galloping up, whooping and making a terrific
clamor. The horses took fright, and dashed across the camp in the
direction of the standard-bearer, attracted by his waving flag. He
instantly put spurs to his steed, and scoured off followed by the
panic-stricken herd, their fright being increased by the yells of
the savages in their rear.
At the first alarm, Mr. Stuart and his comrades had seized their
rifles, and attempted to cut off the Indians who were pursuing the
horses. Their attention was instantly distracted by whoops and yells
in an opposite direction.
They now apprehended that a reserve party was about to carry off
their baggage. They ran to secure it. The reserve party, however,
galloped by, whooping and yelling in triumph and derision. The last
of them proved to be their commander, the identical giant joker
already mentioned. He was not cast in the stern poetical mold of
fashionable Indian heroism, but on the contrary, was grievously
given to vulgar jocularity. As he passed Mr. Stuart and his
companions, he checked his horse, raised himself in his saddle, and
clapping his hand on the most insulting part of his body, uttered
some jeering words, which, fortunately for their delicacy, they
could not understand. The rifle of Ben Jones was leveled in an
instant, and he was on the point of whizzing a bullet into the
target so tauntingly displayed. "Not for your life! not for your
life!" exclaimed Mr. Stuart, "you will bring destruction on us all!"
It was hard to restrain honest Ben, when the mark was so fair and
the insult so foul. "O, Mr. Stuart," exclaimed he, "only let me have
one crack at the infernal rascal, and you may keep all the pay that
is due to me."
"By heaven, if you fire," cried Mr. Stuart, "I'll blow your brains
By this time the Indian was far out of reach, and had rejoined his
men, and the whole dare-devil band, with the captured horses,
scuttled off along the defiles, their red flag flaunting overhead,
and the rocks echoing to their whoops and yells, and demoniac
The unhorsed travellers gazed after them in silent mortification and
despair; yet Mr. Stuart could not but admire the style and spirit
with which the whole exploit had been managed, and pronounced it one
of the most daring and intrepid actions he had ever heard of among
Indians. The whole number of the Crows did not exceed twenty. In
this way a small gang of lurkers will hurry off the cavalry of a
large war party, for when once a drove of horses are seized with
panic, they become frantic, and nothing short of broken necks can
No one was more annoyed by this unfortunate occurrence than Ben
Jones. He declared he would actually have given his whole arrears of
pay, amounting to upwards of a year's wages, rather than be balked
of such a capital shot. Mr. Stuart, however, represented what might
have been the consequence of so rash an act. Life for life is the
Indian maxim. The whole tribe would have made common cause in
avenging the death of a warrior. The party were but seven dismounted
men, with a wide mountain region to traverse, infested by these
people, and which might all be roused by signal fires. In fact, the
conduct of the band of marauders in question, showed the
perseverance of savages when once they have fixed their minds upon a
project. These fellows had evidently been silent and secretly
dogging the party for a week past, and a distance of a hundred and
fifty miles, keeping out of sight by day, lurking about the
encampment at night, watching all their movements, and waiting for a
favorable moment when they should be off their guard. The menace of
Mr. Stuart, in their first interview, to shoot the giant chief with
his pistol, and the fright caused among the warriors by presenting
the rifles, had probably added the stimulus of pique to their usual
horse-stealing propensities. And in this mood of mind they would
doubtless have followed the party throughout their whole course over
the Rocky Mountains, rather than be disappointed in their scheme.
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Astoria; Or Anecdotes Of An Enterprise Beyond The