Canadian Local History
The First Gazetteer of Upper Canada With Annotations
By The Rev. Henry Scadding, D.D.


The full title of the work which it is proposed to reprint, with annotations, is as follows:
"A short Topographical Description of His Majesty's Province of Upper Canada, in North America, to which is annexed a Provincial Gazetteer.
London: Published by W. Faden, Geographer to His Majesty, and to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, Charing Cross, 1799.
Printed by W. Buhner and Co., Russell Court, Cleveland Row, St. James's."
In the second edition, published in 1813, "His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales" is altered to "His Royal Highness the Prince Regent," and the Printers are Hamblin and Seyfang, Garlick Hill, Thames Street. In the first edition the following "Advertisement" or Preface appears:


"The accompanying Notes and Gazetteer were drawn up by David William Smith, Esq., the very able Surveyor General of Upper Canada, at the desire of Major-General Simcoe, on the plan of those of the late Capt. Hutchins for the River Ohio and the Countries adjacent. London, October 1st, 1799." The David William Smith here named was born in 1764. He was the son of Lieut.-Col. Smith, of the Fifth Regiment of Foot, formerly of Salisbury, who died Commandant at Fort Niagara in 1795. At an early age he was appointed an Ensign in his father's regiment, in which he subsequently obtained the rank of Captain. Afterwards he was called to the bar in Upper Canada, with precedence as Deputy Judge Advocate. Besides being Surveyor General, he was also one of the Trustees for the Six Nations, and of the Executive Council of the Committee for administering the Government in the Governor's absence; a member of the first three Upper Canadian Parliaments, and Speaker of the House of Assembly in two of them. On his return to England in 1802, he resided at Alnwick, where he was principal agent to the Duke of Northumberland. He was created a Baronet in 1821. In 1837 he died. He is spoken of as "a high-minded English gentleman, universally beloved for the kindness and warm-hearted generosity of his character." In Burke's General Armory, Sir David is described as being '' of Upper Canada;" and in allusion doubtless to his services in that Province, his shield, Burke informs us, bore a beaver " on a chief;" and over the crest appeared the word "Canada." The whole article in Burke reads as follows: "Smith (as borne by the late Sir David William Smith, of Upper Canada, and of Preston, County of Northumberland, Baronet.) Sir David left four daughters; the eldest married to Charles Tylee, Esq., and the youngest to Edward Tylee, Esq. Per pale, gu. and az.: on a chevron, or, between three cinquefoils, ar. as many leopard's faces sa.; on a chief of the third, a beaver passant proper. Crest: A sinister hand erect apaumé, couped at the wrist, gu., the wrist encircled with a wreath of oak, or, the palm charged with a trefoil slipped, ar.; on an escroll above Canada. Motto: Pro rege et patriâ. Sir David left no heirs male. His only son was killed at Quiberon, in 1811, on board His Majesty's frigate, Spartan"


The Instructions issued to the early surveyors by Sir David, while acting officially in Upper Canada, are still preserved. They are full of interest to the present inhabitants of the localities named. We give the letter addressed by him to Mr. Augustus Jones, at York, dated Niagara, 15th June, 1796, from which we gather that in 1796 an extension of the limits of York (Toronto) was already in contemplation. (The Governor referred to is still Gen. Simcoe.) "Sir: I enclose to you a plan of the County of York, shewing what has been surveyed, that in case His Excellency may be pleased to order it to be enlarged, you will bo able to comply with His Excellency's instructions, either by laying out another range of blocks to the northward, or by continuing thorn to the eastward. I am. Sir, &c., D. W. Smith, Acting Surveyor General."


The Notes and Gazetteer of Upper Canada about to be reproduced, are said above to have been drawn up on the plan of those of the late Capt. Hutchins for the River Ohio and countries adjacent. Of this Capt. Hutchins and his productions we have the following notice in Allibone's Critical Dictionary of English Literature: Hutch' us* 'Thomas, 1730-1789. Captain R[oyal] Army. Subsequently Geographer General of the United States; was a native of Monmouth, New Jersey.

1. Boqnet's Expedition against the Ohio Indians. Philadelphia, 1765, London, 1766, 4 to. pp. 14 and 71: 5 plates. Two of the plates are from designs by Benj. West. In French, Amsterdam, 1796. "The accounts here laid before the public appear to be perfectly authentic, and they are drawn up with equal perspicuity and elegance." Lond. Monthly Magazine.

2. A Topographical Dictionary of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland and North Carolina. London, 1778, 8 vo, pp. 67. 3 plates. In French, Paris, 1781.

3. Historical Narrative and Topographical Description of Louisiana and West Florida. Philadelphia, 1784, pp. 94, &c. In the edition of 1813 the Preface or Advertisement varies slightly from that given above. It says: "The following Notes and Gazetteer were drawn up by David William Smith, Esq., late Surveyor General of the Province of Upper Canada, to illustrate the Map of that Colony, by the desire of Major-General Simcoe." It is then added: "This edition, the second, has been revised and corrected to the present time by Francis Gore, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor, &c., to accompany the new map compiled in the Surveyor General's office, and recently published under his direction." London, 1813. Many particulars relating to Governor Gore are narrated in "Toronto of Old." He was in England during the period of the war with the United States, 1812-14.


After the departure of Mr. D. W. Smith in 1802 the affairs of the Surveyor General's department were superintended for a time by Messrs. Chewett and Ridout conjointly. Then Mr. C. B. Wyatt became Surveyor General. Subsequently Mr. Ridout was appointed. During a portion of the incumbency of D. W. Smith, Mr. Christopher Robinson, formerly of the Province of Virginia, who had borne a commission in the corps of Queen's Rangers, was Deputy Surveyor General. The heading of the first edition, "A General Topographical Description of Upper Canada," is reduced in the second to "A Topographical Description," &c. The work then opens: " By an Act of the British Parliament, [commonly known as the Canadian Constitutional Act of 1791,] passed in the thirty-first year of His present Majesty, [i. e. George III.,] to repeal certain parts of the Act passed in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign, entitled, 'An Act for making more effectual provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec, in North America, and to make further provision for the grapher


Government of the said Province;' the Province of Quebec was divided into the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, which two Provinces were separated according to the following line of division, as set forth in His Majesty's Proclamation of the 18th day of November, 1791, Alured Clarke, Esq.,* Lieutenant-Governor, &c., Ac, &c. :' To commence at a stone boundary on the north bank of the Lake St. Francis, at the cove west of Pointe au Bodet, [in Bouchette's Topographical Dictionary of Lower Canada, this is ' Baudet,'J in the limit between the township of Lancaster and the Seigneury of New Longueuil, running along the said limit in the direction of north 34 degrees west, to the westernmost angle of the said Seigneury of New Longueuil ; thence along the north-western boundary of the Seigneury of Vaudreuil, running north 25 degrees east, until it strikes the Ottawa River; to ascend the said river into Lake Tomiscaming ; and from the head of the said lake by a l.-ne drawn due north until it strikes the boundary lino of Hudson's Bay, including all the territory to the westward and southward of the said line, to the utmost extent of the country commonly called or known by the name of Canada." [The old Longueuil is situated in the County of Chambly.]


The Province of Upper Canada is bounded to the eastward by the United States of America j thai, is, by a line from the 45th degree of north latitude, along the middle of the River Iroquois or Cataraqui, into Lake Ontario ; through the middle thereof until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie ; thence along the middle of the communication into Lake Erie ; through the middle of that lake until it arrives at the water communication between it and Lake Superior ; thence through Lake Superior northward, to the isles Royale and Philipeaux, to the Long Lake, and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods ; thence through that lake to the most north-western point thereof and from thence a due west line to the River Mississippi.


Bouchetto observes that "this boundary was fixed by the treaty of 1783, but is erroneous, inasmuch as a line drawn west from the Lake of the Woods will not strike the Mississippi at all." In President Russell's opening speech to the two houses of Parliament of Upper Canada, on the 15th of June, 1799, we have an allusion to the Mississippi as a westerly boundary of his Province. Honorable Gentlemen and Gentlemen," he says, " I am happy to inform you that the intelligence communicated to me in the beginning of the winter, respecting a combined attack of this Province said to have been in preparation from the side of the Mississippi, turns out to have little or no foundation. It has, however," he then adds, "had the pleasing effect of evincing an internal strength to repel any hostile attempt from that quarter; for I cannot sufficiently applaud the very animated exertions of the Lieutenants of Counties and the loyal spirit and zeal exhibited by the Militia of the several districts on this occasion, whereby two thousand select volunteers from the respective corps thereof were immediately put into a state of readiness to march with their arras at a moment to wherever they might be ordered, and Iam persuaded that the rest would have soon followed with equal alacvity if their services had been wanted." The military spirit of the young colony of Upper Canada was, we see, fated tc be thus early put io the test. The reply to this part of the President's address from the ** Commons" reads as follows: " It affords us the highest satisfaction to learn that the inhabitants of this Province have been so unanimously determined to oppose any attempt which might have been contemplated to disturb its flourishing improvements, not doubting that similar energy will be shown by all classes of the people to prevent the intro(3uction of French principles, and preserve uncontaminated the constitution which the mother country has given us." The Speaker of the Lower House on this occasion was David William Smith, of whom an account has been given above. President Russell, who, it may be observed, had been previously Military Secretary to Sir H. Clinton during the war of the Revolution in the Ignited States, refers again to the expediency of being prepared for hostile attacks on Upper Canada, in the closing speech of the session of 1799. "Although," he says, "the sequestered situation of this Province has, through the favour of Providence, hitherto exempted it from sharing in the calamities of the cruel war which still ravages Europe, I cannot too earnestly exhort you to recommend it strongly to your constituents not to relax in their attentions to militia duties, and to keep that portion of each battalion which has been selected by my desire for immediate service in a constant state of readiness to act when wanted."



To the westward and to the northward, west of the Mississippi, its boundaries are indefinite; the northern limits of Louisiana not being well known. Of Louisiana, the North American and West Indian Gazetter of 1778 says: It stretches from N. to S. about 15 degrees, namely from lat. 25 to 40; and from E. to W., about 10 or 11 degrees; that is, from long. 86 to 96 or 97, for the limits are not precisely fixed. M. de Lisle, the Gazetteer then adds, gives it a much greater extent, especially on the north side, which he joins to Canada, so that part of it is bounded by New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, &c., and on the west by the rivers Bravo and Salado. In the second edition (1813) of our Provincial Gazetteer, the paragraph in which Louisiana is named remains unchanged.


To the northward, it is bounded by Hudson's Bay, as settled by the treaty of Utrecht [1713], in the 49th parallel of north latitude, extending liiie west, indefinitely.


Soon after his Excellency, John Graves Simcoe, Esq., the first Lieutenant-Governor, had taken upon him the administration of the Government of the Province, he divided it by proclamation into nineteen counties, 1, Glengary; 2, Stormont; 3, Dundee; 4, Grenville; 5, Leeds; 6, Frontenac; 7, Ontario, consisting of the islands in the lake of that name; 8, Addington; 9, Lenox; 10, Prince Edward; 11, Hastings; 12, Northumberland; 13, Durham; 14, York, consisting of two Ridings; 15, Lincoln, consisting of four Ridings; 16, Norfolk; 17, Suffolk; 18, Essex; 19, Kent. This last county comprehends all the country, not being territory of the American Indians and not included in the several other counties, extending northward to the boundary lino of Hudson's Bay, including all the territory to the westward and southward of the said line, to the utmost extent of the country commonly known by the name of Canada.


These nineteen counties send sixteen representatives to the Provincial Parliament, who, with Legislative Council, are called together once every year. The representatives are elected for four years to serve in the Assembly, unless the Parliament bo sooner dissolved by the person administering the Government. [In the second edition (1813), instead of the above list of nineteen counties, the following table is given:


The counties send twenty-five representatives to the Provincial Parliament


Pointe au Bodet is situated nearly half way on the north side of Lake St. Francis, which is about 25 miles long, and narrow throughout. The object of dividing the Province of Quebec at a stone boundary in the cove, west of this point, was apparently in order that the seignorial grants, under French tenure, should be comprelionded in the Province of Lower Canada, and I at the new signioriea or township, which were hide out for the loyalists, below be within the Province of Upper Canada; the said stone boundary being the limit between the uppermost French seigniory (M. De Longueuils) on the River St. Lawrence, and the lower new seigniory of Lancaster, surveyed for the disbanded troops and loyalists; his Majesty having in the year 1788 signified his intention that they should bo placed upon the same footing in all respects as the loyalists in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, by having their lands granted to them in free and common soccage.


In passing from the Point au Bodet, westward, through Lake St. Francis and up the River St. Lawrence, the route is generally made on the north shore. Lancaster is the first township fronting this lake: it extends nine miles, which is the ordinary size of the townships, and extending twelve miles back from the front. Lancaster is watered by three small rivers, one of which empties itself to the east, and another to the west of Pointe Mouillee, which projects into the lake towards the centre of the township. The next township is Charlottenburg, well watered by the River aux Raisins, which, rising in the Township of Osnabruck, runs through that and the Township of Cornwall, and discharges itself into Lake St. Francis, at the south-east angle of Charlottenburg, eastward of Point Johnson. In front of this township are several small islands.


Between Charlottenburg and Cornwall is a small tract possessed by the Indians, who have a considerable village on the south shore, called St. Regis; and in this part of the St. Lawrence lie several islands, one called Petite Isle St. Regis, immediately opposite their village, and another, Grande Isle St. Regis, a little higher up, opposite the town of Cornwall.


In the rear of Charlottenburg is the township of Kenyon. The township of Cornwall adjoins next; in the front is the town, of a mile square, lying in a commodious bay of the river, and watered by a small rivulet which runs through the town. Two branches of the River aux Raisins pass through the lands of this township; and in the front thereof are the Isles aux mille Roches et des Cheveaux Ecart^es; Grande Isle St. Regis, lying in front of the town. In the rear of this township is the township of Roxburgh.


The Rapid, called the Long Sault, lies in front of this township; the boats, in going up, keep the north shore in great measure, because the south shore is not settled; but in descending, they universally pass between the islands and the south shore, that being the deepest, and altogether the safest passage. The inhabitants of late years have taken down their grain with safety on rafts to the Montreal markets.


Many people think that the lumber trade is carried on with more safety down the rapids, than by those which pass Chambly from Lake Champlain; it being a frequent observation at Quebec, that the rafts from the Upper St. Lawrence are less ragged than those which come from Lake Champlain. There is, however, some little additional risk to the rafts from Upper Canada, by reason of having to pass the small Lakes St. Francis and St. Louis—all broad waters being more or less against the rafting trade. But as the Lake St. Pierre, which is larger than either St. Francis or St. Louis, must be passed, whether from Lake Champlain or the Upper St. Lawrence, there is no doubt but the lumber trade will find its way down the St. Lawrence. Some settlers have already made the attempt, even from the head of the Bay of Quint; and when the produce of that very fertile country shall be exploited for the Montreal or foreign markets, the raft will answer a double pui-pose; it requires but few hands to manage it; and grain or potash may be carried as dry as in any other way.


The township of Williamsburgh is next above Osnabruck; it has but few streams. There are some islands in its front; among the rest, Isle au rapid Plat, the west end of which lies also in front of Matilda, the next township. In the front is Point aux Pins and Point Iroquois; the latter of which has the advantage in a great measure of commanding the passage up and down the St. Lawrence. A few islands lie in the front of this township, and a peninsula, which is insulated at high water.


Matilda is the next township above Williamsburgh: 2nd edition


Edwardsburgh is the next township; the front of which is Johnstown, of a mile square. This, with the town of Cornwall, has been most judiciously seated, the one being immediately above, the other below, the rapids of the Upper St. Lawrence, and of course easy of access from the Lake St. Francia below to Cornwall; and from Johnstown vessels may be navigated with safety to Queenstown above Niagara, and to all the ports of the Lake Ontario. In the front of this township is Pointe au Cardinal, Pointe au Gallop, Point lurogne, and Pointe au Foin; and several islands, among which are Hospital Island and Isle du Fort Levy, where the French had a garrison, the ruins of which are still to be seen.


A little above Johnstown, on the south shore, is Fort Oswegatchie, situated on the river of that name.


Augusta lies above Edwardsburgh; it has but few streams; Pointe au Barril is in front.


The next township is Elizabeth Town, which is well watered by the River Tonianta and three other streams. The Isles du Barril lie in front of this township.


The township of Yonge lies next, and is of irregular shape. The River Tonianta empties itself into the St. Lawrence near the southeast angle of this township. Towards the upper part are the narrows made by a peninsula from the north shore, and Grenadier Island, which lies in front of this township, as do several smaller ones. Landsdown is next; it has several small streams, and many islands in its front, but none of any size.


Leeds adjoins Landsdown, and is well watered by the River Gananoquo, which affords a good harbour at its entrance. Howe Island lies partly in front of this township, as do several small islands.


Pittsburgh lies above Leeds; part of Wolfe Island, and part of Howe Island are in its front. This township adjoins to Kingston; from hence westward, the St. Lawrence opens into the Lake Ontario, it being about 120 miles direct from Kingston to Pointe au Bodet. The St. Lawrence may be classed with the most noble rivers in the world; its waters flow for the extent of 2,000 miles before they reach the ocean; the commercial advantages from such a situation increase in proportion to the population of its banks. The Indian trade, in a great measure, takes its current down the St. Lawrence, particularly since vessels of a considerable size are daily building for the navigation of the lakes.


The land in all the before-mentioned townships is for the most part fertile, and under as high a state of cultivation as can be expected from the time it has been settled; the fii-st improvements being made since the peace of 1783, when all was in a state of nature and heavily timbered.


There are now between 30 and 40 mills [more than 40 miles in the extent mentioned, on this river, the most remarkable of which are on the Gananoque. Good roads have been opened, and bridges well constructed; some of them over wet lands and the mouths of creeks and rivers of very considerable extent; and the first settlers have been able, by their very great industry, to erect comfortable houses.


In the rear of these townships, on the St. Lawrence, are upwards of twenty others in which settlements have been commenced, to the southward of the Ottawa or Grand River, which many of them front; others are well supplied by the waters of the Rideau [wrongly printed Radeau, occasionally, in both editions] and River Petite Nation, with the Gananoque lakes and streams, all of which afford abundance of situations for mills. These rivers, like most others in Canada, abound in carp, sturgeon, perch and cat-fish; the ponds affording green and other turtle, with fish of various sorts. The lands in their vicinity are differently timbered according to their quality and situation. The dry lands, which are generally high, bear oak and hickory; the low grounds produce walnut, ash, poplar, cherry, sycamore, beech, maple, elm, <fec., and in some places there are swamps full of cedar and cypress.


The banks of most of the creeks abound in fine pine timber, and the creeks themselves afford in general good seats for saw mills; materials for building are reatiily procured.


The heads of the Rivers Rideau and Petite Nation communicate by short portages or Citrrying places with the waters which fall into the St. Lawrence, and promise to afford great advantages to all kinds of inland communication. The forks of the Rideau, about which are the townships of Oxford, Marlborough and Gower, promise to be, at some future period, an emporium for interior commerce.


The birch canoes which go to the North-West country, pass up the Ottawa River with the merchandize, and with pelts.


The town of Kingston is situated at the head of the St. Lawrence on the north shore, opposite to Wolfe Island; it occupies the site of old Fort Frontenac, was laid out in the year 1784, and is now of considerable size; it has a barrack for troops and a house for the commanding officer, an hospital, several storehouses, an Episcopal Church, [a Roman Catholic Chapel,] a gaol and court house. A cove near to the town [upon which the town is situated: 2nd ed.] affords a good harbour for shipping; it is safe, commodious and well sheltered. Large vessels seldom go below Kingston, although it is navigable to Oswegatchie, about 70 miles down the river; the stores, provisions, which are lodged in the dep6t at this place, being usually transported there in boats from Montreal.


About Kingston there are several valuable quarries of limestone, and the country in general is rather stony, which is not found to be detrimental to the crops.


The township which surrounds this town bears the same name. Ernest-town lies above Kingston; it is watered by two small rivers; Amherst Island lies in its front. In the rear of this township is Camden; the Appenee river, on which there are excellent mills, runs through it.


Having passed Ernest-town, the Bay of Quints commences with Fredericksburgh to the north at its entrance, and Marysburgh to the south.


This bay, which may be considered throughout as a harbour, is formed by a largo peninsula, consisting of the townships of AmeUaaburgh, Sophiasburgh and Marysburgh, extending easterly from an isthmus, where there is a portage, at the head or west end of the bay, to Point Pleasant, the easternmost extremity of the peninsula, opposite to Amherst Island.


The River Trent empties itself into the head of the bay, to the eastward of the portage, and supplies it with the waters of the Rice Itike. To the westward of the portage, in Lake Ontario, is th« harbour of Presq' Isle de Quint, now called Newcastle. This peninsula of the three townships, called the county of Prince Edward, extending from the mainland like an arm, hides from the Lake Ontario the townships of Sidney, Thurlow, Adolphustown and Fredericksburgh, which front the north side of the bay.


The River Trent, discharging itself between the townships of Murray and Sidney, finds its passage between the county of Prince Edward and the townships on the north side of the bay; its stream is increased by the Appannee river running in from Camden, and dividing Richmond from Fredericksburgh, joins the waters of the bay near John's Island, a small isle opposite to a settlement of Mohawks, so called after Captain John, a Mohawk chief, who resides there, and who, with some others of that nation, had a tract of land given them by his Majesty, of abort nine miles in front on the bay, and about twelve miles deep; preferring this situation, they separated from the rest of their nation, who were settled on the Grand River, or Ouse.


In Fredericksburgh and Adolphustown there are several fine bays and coves; and in the latter township there is a small town on the bay opposite to Marysburgh.


The River Shannon runs into the bay at the south-east angle of the township of Thurlow, and the Moira River at the south-west angle of that township.


There are several small coves and bays also in the peninsula of Prince Edward, and a small lake between Sophiasburgh and Marysburgh, which empties itself into a bay of Lake Ontario. There is an island in the bay between Sophiasburgh and Thurlow, and between Killikokin Point and Point Oubesuoutegongs, of about seven miles long.


Isle de Quints, now called Nicholas Island, lies off Ameliasburgh in Lake Ontario; and off Point Traverse in Marysburgh are the Duck Islands. In the deep bay between Point Traverse and Point Pleasant are Orphan Island and Isle du Chene. The River Trent, which falls into the head of the Bay of Quint, not only leads off the waters of the Rice lake, but of a chain of lakes between it and Luke Simcoe; a few milea up the river, on the south side, are salt springs.


The fertility of the soil about the Bay of Quints is generally allowed: the land is rich, easily worked, and produces several crops without manure; twenty-five bushels of wheat are often produced from one acre; the timber is much like that of the other parts of the Province—oak, elm, hickory, maple, &c. The bay is narrow throughout, and upwards of fifty miles long, all which distance it is navigable for those small vessels that are used on the lakes.


An apparent tide is frequently noticed in the Bay of Quints, not dissimilar to thoso observed in some of the upper lakes. [Merely tha rifle and fall occasioned now and then by the prevalence or absence of certain winds. The bay abounds with wild fowl and fish of various kinds; the River Trent affords a salmon fishery. In passing from the head of the Bay of Quint into Lake Ontario, you cross a very short portage in front of the township of Murray, being the isthmus between it and the peninsula of Prince Edward; at the end of the portage, and before you enter Lake Ontario, is a small lake, exceedingly beautiful, and the land on its banks extremely good; to the northward of this portage it is proposed to make a canal, to connect the waters of the bay with those of the lake. The circumstance of two small streams rising near each other, and running different ways, seems to point out the facility of the measure. The cut, which Campbell (in his " Notes on the Political Survey of Great Britain " calls' Earl Gower's canal, seems to be well suited to this country, where labour bears so high a price, and where the rooting; up of immense trees is so great a difficulty to encounter.


John Campbell, LL.D., 1708-1775, a voluminous Historical, Biographical and Political writer. The allusion is probably to the second Earl Gower who, in 1786, became Marquis of Stafford. A little to the westward of the portage and proposed canal, is the harbour of Newcastle, a situation well suited for commerce and protection, and sheltered from all winds; a knoll on the peninsula affords a healthy site for the town.


After leaving Murray, in going to the westward along the shore of Lake Ontario, you pass the townships of Cramah6, Haldimand and Hamilton, which are now settling; and arriving at the township of Hope, you find excellent mills; from thence there is a portage to the Kice Lake.


You then pass by the fronts of Clarke, Darlington, and Whitby; and coming to Pickering, you meet with an excellent salmon and sturgeon fishery, at a river called Duffin's Creek, which is generally open, and large enough to receive boats at most seasons of the year. After leaving the township of Pickering, you pass under the high lands of Scarborough, and arrive at the township of York.


All the townships on the north side of the lake are well watered by small streams, at the mouths of which are ponds, and low land capable of being drained and converted into meadows. In the rear of the township of Murray is the township of Seymour; in the rear of Oramah6 is Percy in the rear of Haldimand is Alnwick; and in the rear of Hamilton is Dives. [The last eight words are omitted in 2nd edition.


The river Nen empties itself into Lake Ontario, in the township of Pickering, east of the Scarborough heights; it runs from a considerable distance in the country through Scarborough, Markliam, &co., crossing the Yonge Street, and apparently rising in the vicinity of one of the branches of Holland's River, with which it will probably, at some future period, be connected by a canal. This river abounds with fish; at its embouchure are good intervals for meadow ground, and it is the back communication from the German settlement in Markham to Lake Ontario.


York, which is at present the seat of Government of Upper Canada, lies in about 43 degrees and 35 minutes north latitude, and is most beautifully situated within an excellent harbour of the same name, made by a long peninsula, which embraces a basin of water sufficiently large to contain a considerable fleet. It has this advantage over the other ports on Lake Ontario, that vessels may ride safely at its entrance during the winter.


On the extremity of the peninsula, which is called Gibraltar Point, are commodious stores and block-houses, which command the entrance to the harbour; on the mainland, opposite to the Point, is the garrison, situated on a point made by the harbour and a small rivulet, which, being improved by sluices, affords an easy access for boats to go up to the stores; [the last seventeen words are omitted in the 2nd edition. The barracks, being built on a knoll, are well situated for health, and command a delightful prospect of the lake to the west, and of the harbour to the east. The Government House, which is not -'t finished, is about two miles above the garrison, near the head of the harbour, and the town is increasing very rapidly. In the 2nd edition, the preceding sentence reads thus:—" The Government House is about two miles from the east end of the town, at the entrance of the harbour, and the town is increasing very rapidly." The Government House referred to in the 2nd edition was situated in the Fort.


It was destroyed by the concussion occasioned by the blowing up of the powder-magazine, when York was taken by the United States force in 1813.] The front of the city, as now laid out, is a mile and a half in length; several handsome squares are projected, particularly one open to the harbour. The Kiver Don empties itself into the harbour a little above the town, running through a marsh, which, when drained, will afford beautiful and fertile meadows; this has already been effected in a small degree, which will no doubt encourage further attempts. The long beach or peninsula, which affords a most delightful ride, is considered so healthy by the Indians, that they resort to it whenever indisposed; and so soon as the bridge over the Don is finished, it will of course be generally resorted to, [in 2nd edition: the bridge over the Don, being finished, is frequented] not only for pleasure, but as the most convenient road to the heights of Scarborough. The ground which has been prepared for the Government House is situated between the city and the River Don, in a beautiful spot, and its vicinity well suited for gardens and a park. By " Government House" is here meant the first Parliament Buildings, which were afterwards burnt by the enemy in 1813.] The oaks are large, the soil excellent, and watered by various streams; the harbour is well calculated for ship-building and launching of vessels. The Yonge Street, or military way, leading to Lake Simcoe, and from tnence to Gloucester on Lake Huron, commences in the rear of the city. This great communication has been opened to Gwillimbury, 32 miles; and must be the great channel to the North-West, aa it is considerably shorter than the circuitous route by the Straits of Niagara and Detroit. [In the 2nd edition, the following sentence is inserted here:—The tract of land between Kempenfeldt and Penetanguishene ^ays has been lately purchased from the Indians, and a road is opening, which will enable the North-West Company to transport their furs from Lake Huron to York, thereby avoiding the circuitous route of Lake Erie, and the inconvenience of passing along the American frontier. We add in a note below the official document attesting the purchase at Penetanguishene.*] Farm lots of 200 acres are laid out on each side of Yonge Street, having a width of a quarter of a mile each, on the street; in general, the land is excellent, and fit for every purpose of husbandry.


Footnote Upper Canada.—To all to whom these Presents may come, Greeting. Whereas the Chief, Warriors and People of the Chippoway Tribe or Nation of Indians, being desirous, for certain considerations hereinafter shewn, of selling and disposing of a certain tract of Land lying near the Lake Huron, or butting and bounding thereon, called the Harbour of Penetanguishene, to His Britannic Majesty King George the Third, our Great Father, Now know ye that we the Chiefs, Warriors and People of the Clilppcway Tribe or Nation, for and in consideration of One Hundred and One Pounds, Quebec currency, to us paid, or in Value given, the receipt whereof we hereby acknowledge, to have given, granted, sold, disposed of, and confirmed, and by these points do give, grant, sell, dispose of and confirm for ever, unto His Britannic Majesty King jeorgo the Third, all that tract or space containing land and water, or parcel of ground covered with water, be the same land or water, or both, lying and being near or upon the Lake Huron, called Penetanguishene, butted and bounded as follows:—Beginning at the Head or south-westernmost angle of a Bay, situated above certain French ruins, now lying on the East side of a small Strait leading from the said Bay into a larger Bay called Glouceiter or Sturgeon Bay, the Head or south-westernmost angle of the said Bay being called by the Indians Opetiquayawsing; then North 70 degrees West to a Bay of Lake Huron, called by the ndiana Nottoway Sagu Bay; once following the shores of Lake Huron according to the different courses and windings of tlio said Nottoway Sigufi Bay; Penct.ingnishene Harbour and Gloucester or Sturgeon Bay, sometimes called also Matchadash, to the place of beginning, containing all the lauds to the northward of the said line, rr luing North 70 degrees West, and lying between it and tlio waters of Lake Huron, together with the Islands in the said Harbour of Penetanguishene. To have and to hold the said parcel or tract of land, together with all the woods and waters thereon lying and being, unto His said Britannic Majesty King George.


There, his heirs and successors for ever, free and ''clear- of all claims, rights, privileges and emoluments which we the said Chiefs, Warriors and People cf the said Chippeway Tribe or Nation might have before the execution of these Presents, and free and clear of any pretended Claims, rights, privileges or emoluments to which our Children, Descendants and Posterity may hereafter make to the same. Hereby renouncing and forever absolving ourselves, and our children, descendants and posterity, of all title to the, woods and waters of the above described parcel or tract of land in favour of His said Br'annic Majesty, his heirs and successors forever. In Witness whereof we have, for ourselves and the rest of our Tribe o." Nation, hereto set our marks, seals and signatures, this twenty-second day of day, and in the Thirty-eighth year of the Reign of our Great Father, King George the Third, at York, in the Province aforesaid, having first heard this Instrument openly read and rehearsed in our own language, and fully approved by ourselves and our Nation. Signed, William Clans, Superintendent Indian Affairs, on behalf of the Crown, (L.S.); Cliabondaslieam, (L.S.) [liguro of a Reindeer]; Aasancc, (L.S.) fflgure of an Otter]; Wabinimpion, (L.S) [figure of a Pike]; Ningawson, (L.S.) [figure of a Reindeer]; Omassanahsqutawah, (L.S.) [figure of a Reindeer.] In t'ae presence of William Willconks, Commissioner on behalf of the Province; Alexander Burns, Commissioner on behalf of the Province; Samuel Smith, M(i.jor Q. Rangers; Arthur Holdsworth Brooking, Lieut. Q. Rangers; John McGill, Adjutant Q. Rangers; J. Givins, Agent of Indians; W. Johnson Chew, Indian Dei^.Ttmeiit; George Cown, Indian Department.


To this Instrument was annexed a plan of the Lands and Harbour purchased, and schedule of the goods given as an equivalent for the same. "We do hereby certify that the following Goods were delivered in our presence to the Chippeway Nation, subscribers to tlie within Deed, beiug the consideration therein mentinned, as sent from the general Store by order of the Commander-in-Chief:—Twenty pair Blankets of 2| Points, lOs. Cd.—£16 10s. Twenty-five pair Blankets of 2 Points, 123.--£15. Seventeen pair Blankets of 1 J Points, 9s. 9d.—.tS 5s. 9d. I'our pieces Blue Strouds, eighty-four yards, 117s. a Piece—£23 8s. Forty-four Pounds Brass Kettle, 2s. 4Jd.—£5 48. 6d. Four Pieces Calico, ISJ yards each is seventy-four yards, 558. 6d. per piece—£11 2s. Three Pieces Linen, 25 yards each is seventy-flve yards, 75s. per piece—£11 6s. Three Pieces Caliinanco, 30 yards, is ninety yards, 54s. 9d. per piece—£8 4s. 3d. Nine dozen Butchers' Knives at 4s. Od. per dozen—,£2 OS. 6d. Amounting in the whole tu One Hundred and One Pounds, Quebec currency.


Signed, William Willcocks. to be continued




A. Afnno Creek, in the County of Lincoln, empties itself into Like Krie, in the township of Bertie, at the head of the bay, east of Point Abino.


Abino Foinf, in the township of Bextie, on Lake Erie, is nine or ten miles west of Fort Erie. In a letter of Chief Brant's, dated 1794, given in Perkins' " Annals of the West," p. 396, this place is spoken of as " Point Appineau." Abino is probably an abridged form of the Otchipway word abmo-dgi, " child." In Lake Superior there is a point named (rojingouassagokag, " Little Girl's Point."]


Addington County is bounded on the east by the County of Frontenac; on the soil by Lake Ontario, to the westernmost boundary of the late township of Eniest Town; and on the west by tlie township of Fredericksburgh, running north 31 degrees west, until it meets the Ottawa or Grand River, and thence descending that river until it meets the north-westernmost boundary of the County of Frontenac. This county comprehends all the islands nearest to it. [In the 2nd edition, this article reads as follows: "Addington and Lenox County Is bounded on the east by the County of Frontenac, on the south by Lake OnUirio, and on the west by the County of Hastings. This county comprehends all the islands nearest to it; it sends, in conjunction with Hastings and Northumberland, one representative to the Provincial Parliament." Addington perpetuates the name of Mr. Speaker Addington, 1796, afterwards Lord Sidmouth. Lenox, more usually Lennox, was a compliment to Charles Lennox, third Duke of Richmond, Master of the^ Ordnance in the reign of George III.


Adolphus Town is situated in the Bay of Quiutd: it is bounded southerly, westerly and northerly by the waters of the bay, and easterly by the township of Fredericksburgh, in the Midland District. The courts of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace are held here annually, the second Tuesday in January and July.


Adolphus Town, the township of, in the County of Lenox, lies to the westward of Fredericksburgh, in the Bay of Quint6. "Adolphus," from Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, youngest son of George "


Aldborough Township, in the County of Suffolk, lies to the west of Dunwich: it is washed by the Thames on the north and by Lake Erie on the south. [Probably from Aldborough in Suffolk, England, a fishing-town at the mouth of the River Aide, There is another Aldborough in the West Riding of York, the Isurium Brigantium of the Roman period.


Alempignon Lake lies to the northward of Lake Superior, and between it and the mountains which bound the Hudson's Bay Colony and Now South Wales to the southward. It contains several small islands, and is about the size of Lake Nipissing. [This is the same as Lake Nipigon, now familiar to tourists. In Otchipway, Nibegom=:" I wait for game in the night on the water in a canoe." (See Baraga's Otchipway Dictionary, p. 279.) In a list of names in Schoolcraft's American Indians (p. 25, n.), to Alempigon is subjoined the note: " Improperly written for Nipigon, a small lake north of Lake Superior."


Alfraa Township, in the County of Glengarry, is the third township in ascending the Ottawa River.


Alnwick Township, in the County of Northumberland, lies in the rear and north of Haldiniand.


Alumets Its, on the Ottawa River, above the Rapids, which are higher than Riviere du Nord.


Alnred Cape, in the township of Clarke, north side of Lake Ontario. Alured was the baptismal name of General Clarke (afterwards Sir Alured), from wlioni the township had its name. It is an archaic form of Alfred.


Amdiasburgh Township, in the County of Prince Edward, is the westernmost township of that county, bounded by the canying place which loads from the head of the Ruy of Quinto to Lake Ontario, and is washed by the waters of the bay and the lake. [Amelia, from the name of a daughter of George III.


Amkerstbiinjh, the military post and garrison now building, at the mouth of Detroit River, in the township of Maiden.


Amherst Island, in the County of Ontario, formerly called Islo Tonti, contains about 16,000 acres: it lies opposite to Ernest Town and part of Fredericksburgh, in Lake (.Ontario, towards the entrance of the Bay of Quints. [Amherst, from the Coneral of that name, to whom Vaudi'cuil capitulated in 1760.


Amikoues, River of the, runs into Lake Huron from the north shore, east of the Mississaga River. Amikoues is Otchipway for " beaver-lodge."


Ancaster Township lies to the southward of Dundas Street, and is bounded on the east by Barton and Glanford. [From Ancaster in Jjiiicolnshire, the ancient Roman station, Crococalana. It gave the title of dulvo to the head of the Bertie family (the Earl of Lindsey's) up to 1806.


Angoiisoka River, now called the {Shannon, empties itself into the Bay of Quint.


Annequionchecom Lake: one of the lakes on the communication between Rice Lake and Lake Simcoc. [Annequi denotes " succession." The native names of other lakes iu this chain are given in Capt. Owen's chart, published by the Admiralty in 1838. Caneimndacokank, Balsam Lake; N^nnmeysavkyayun, Sturgeon Lake. Two lakes marked Shebaughtickioyomi, one the " West," the other the " East " Lake. {Shehatujhtick gives the notion of stiffness.) Cautjh-VMivkuonykauk, Tripe Lake. The river by which the lakes in the township of Reach empty into Sturgeon Lakee is marked Yaiobas/ikaskauk. (The modern much-vulgar! zed " Bol)cayg('on " appears on Owen's chai'tas "Babakaijuen ,"' doubtless a better approximation to the Otchipway word. Baba denotes "repetition." Kakahikc " There is a strong rapid over rocks."


Ann's St. Island, on Lake Superior, lies to the southward of Isle Jlocquart.


Apostles, the Twelve,  West Bay, in Lake Superior.


Appanee River, running through the front of the township of Camden, divides Fredericksburgh from Richmond, and empties itself into the Bay of Quint at the Mohawk settlement. [Appa7mee=^ Flour. This name has now assumed the form of appanee.


Atokas, liimr ano^, runs into Lake Ontario west of York, and the River Humber. Tho mouth of this river is the boundary between the Misaissaga lands and the East Riding of the County of York. It is now generally called the Etobicoke. [Atokaa appears to b«' a French abbreviation of the native name, whicli meant " a place where there are alder- trees." "Etobicoke" Ikis retained more of the original expression. The early surveyor, Augustus Jones, Avrites the word as " Atobicoake " in one of his letters, and designates another sti'cam at " the Jiead of the lake " by the same name, which he interprets " Bhick Aldei- Cree ," and notes that it is " the creek near Morden's," i.e.. the solitary house (in Jones' day) at the point ^ where "Dundas Street" struck the stream of whicii Burlington Bay s, as it wei'e, the estuary. Baraga, in his Otcliipway Dictionary, gives "Wadupiki" as "Alder-forest;" and " AMer-point," l/ake Superior, is "Nadopikan." Comp. Apanee, Napanee.


Attica Bay, on the south side of the Ottawa river, in Monsieur ile Longueil's seignory, lies at the *Tioutli of the river of the same name.


Attica, River an, runs into the Ottawa river, in Monsieur de Longueil's seigniory. Drake, in his work on the Indians of North America, mentions the " Attikamigues " (Whitefish) as a tribe 'in the North of Canada, destroyed by Pestilence in 1670."


Augusta Township, in the County of Grenville, is the eighth township in ascending the River St. Lawrence. Augusta is probably a compliment to the King's daughter-Sophia.